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Published: 20th Apr, 2023

Art & Culture

MP’s Gond Painting gets GI Tag

Madhya Pradesh's Gond painting gets GI tag, protecting and recognizing tribal artists and requiring committee approval for non-tribal artists to use the art.


  • Gond paintings are a form of painting from folk and tribal art that is practiced by one of the largest tribes in India with whom it shares its name.
  • Gond comes from the Dravidian expression, Kond which means 'the green mountain'.
  • Gond painting is a traditional art of Madhya Pradesh and belongs to the Gond tribe.
  • Patangarh village of Dindori district famous for gond paintings. 
  • o    It is such a village where there is an artist in every house. 
  • o    Their work is not only famous in the state but also abroad as these paintings have a unique style and unique art which certainly mesmerizes for its unique theme. 
  • Gond art has been ruling for centuries, traditionally adorning the walls of each artist's home in Patangarh.

Art and Culture

Bohag Bihu

Bohag Bihu, a 7-day festival will be celebrated from April 14, 2023 to April 20, 2023 in Assam.

About the event:

  • The seven days of Bohag Bihu are celebrated differently.
  • The first day or Garu Bihu is dedicated to cattle and on this day people take their cattle to river, bathe them, adorn them with garlands, pain their horns and hoofs and pray for their well-being.
  • The second day of the festival is called Manuh Bihu, wherein people wake up early in the morning, apply turmeric paste on their bodies and take bath.
  • Delicious traditional dishes like Til Laru, Pitha, Murir Laru, Ghila Pitha, Poka Mithoi among others are made.
  • People meet and greet each other and exchange gifts.
  • The third day of the festival is called Guxai Bihu, dedicated to worshipping household deities.
  • The fourth day is called Taator Bihu or Bihu for the handlooms.
  • The fifth day is called Nangolor Bihu, dedicated to farm equipment, while the sixth day is called GharosiaJibar Bihu, which is celebrated for domestic animals.
  • The final day of the festival is celebrated as Chera Bihu which is celebrated with much enthusiasm.
  • Bihu festival:
  • It is one of the biggest festivals of Assam and marks the first day of Hindu unipolar calendar, and the beginning of Assamese New Year.
  • Bihu is celebrated thrice in a year.
  • Bohag Bihu marks the beginning of the seeding period and falls in the second week of April every year.
  • The other two - Kati Bihu and Magh Bihu are celebrated in October and January respectively.
  • Rong means joy in Assamese and Rongali Bihu is the time for joy and happiness for Assamese community as they celebrate each day of the festival with great fervour and enthusiasm.

Art & Culture (GS-I)

Uttaramerur inscription

Prime Minister Narendra Modi recently referred to the Uttaramerur inscription in Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu, while discussing India’s democratic history.


  • The famous inscription from Parantaka I’s reign is found on the walls of the Vaikunda Perumal Temple.
  • The inscription gives details of the functioning of the local sabha, i.e. the village assembly. 
  • A sabha was an assembly exclusively of brahmans and had specialised committees tasked with different things. 
  • The Uttaramerur inscription details how members were selected, the required qualifications, their roles and responsibilities, and even the circumstances in which they could be removed.

Uttaramerur lies in present-day Kanchipuram district, approximately 90 km southeast of Chennai. It is known for its historic temples built during Pallava and Chola rule.

Art & Culture

World Heritage Day 2023

April 18th marks the observance of World Heritage Day, also referred to as International Day for Monuments and Sites.


  • The day was established by the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) and was approved by the UNESCO General Conference in 1983.
  • The date, April 18th, was chosen to commemorate the day when the Convention Concerning the Protection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage was adopted by UNESCO in 1982.
  •  Theme 2023:  “Heritage Changes”
  • Heritage sites refer to locations or landmarks that possess significant cultural, historical, scientific, or artistic value to a particular community, society, or nation.
  • As of today, there are 40 World Heritage Sites in India that have been declared by UNESCO. 

International Relations

Exercise Orion

Exercise Orion, a bilateral military drill between the Indian Air Force and the French Air and Space Force (FASF) started at the Mont-de-Marsan airbase in France.


  • Orion is reportedly the largest ever multinational exercise being carried out by the French defence forces which have involved their Army, Navy and Air Force along with their allies the US and the UK.
  • The IAF Contingent comprising four Rafale, two C-17, two ll-78 aircraft, and 165 air warriors participated in the exercise.
This would be the first overseas exercise for the IAF's Rafale aircraft.

International Relations

India hosts first joint working group meeting on Chabahar port




The first joint working group meeting on the Chabahar port is going to be hosted by India.

About the meet:

  • India has been pushing for the Chabahar port project to boost regional trade, especially for its connectivity to Afghanistan.
  • At the meeting, the country representative for the UN World Food Programme (UNWFP) made a presentation on the on-going cooperation between India and the UNWFP in Afghanistan for the delivery of wheat assistance.
  • The consul general of Afghanistan emphasised the significance of the Chabahar port for the delivery of humanitarian assistance for the Afghan people and providing economic opportunities for Afghan businessmen and traders.


  • India and the central Asian nations reaffirmed that connectivity initiatives should comply with global norms, transparency, local priorities, financial sustainability and respect for the sovereignty and territorial integrity of all countries.

Polity and Governance

Doctrine of Promissory Estoppel

The Supreme Court has dismissed petitions challenging the Delhi High Court judgment which upheld the Agnipath scheme for recruitment to the armed forces.

About the case:

  • Some of the petitioners included candidates who were shortlisted in the earlier recruitment process to Army and Air Force.
  • The advocate representing students argued that the government must be directed to complete the old process citing the doctrine of promissory estoppel.
  • What is Doctrine of Promissory Estoppel?
  • Within contract law, promissory estoppel refers to “the doctrine that a party may recover on the basis of a promise made when the party's reliance on that promise was reasonable, and the party attempting to recover detrimentally relied on the promise.”
  • The Doctrine of Promissory Estoppel works on the principle of equity, fairness and moral conscience.
  • The doctrine of Promissory Estoppel means when an individual with an intention of forming a relationship which is lawful makes a clear promise to another individual and the latter individual acts on it that promise becomes an obligation for the individual who made the promise.
  • Hence, then going back from its words is not permissible

Polity & Governance

Ninth Schedule of the Indian Constitution

Chhattisgarh chief minister has written a letter to Prime Minister Narendra Modi, urging him to include the state’s amended provisions to provide 76% reservation for SC, ST OBC and RWS in the ninth schedule of the Constitution for "based on the population" of the state.


  • The Ninth Schedule includes a list of Central and State laws which cannot be challenged in courts. 
    • o    While the Ninth Schedule provides the law with a “safe harbour” from judicial review, the protection is not blanket.
  • The Schedule became a part of the Constitution in 1951, when the document was amended for the first time. 
  • It was created by the new Article 31B, which along with 31A was brought in by the government to protect laws related to agrarian reform and for abolishing the Zamindari system. 
    • A. 31A extends protection to ‘classes’ of laws
    • A. 31B shields specific laws or enactments.


Dabba trading

The National Stock Exchange (NSE) issued a string of notices naming entities involved in ‘dabba trading’.


  • Dabba trading is an illegal form of trading in shares that operates outside the purview of recognized stock exchanges.
  • It has been banned by the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI).
  • It involves a parallel stock market where traders can speculate on the direction of share prices and stock indices without a trading account, demat account, or providing KYC details.
  • According to the Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1956 (SCRA), trading in shares of companies between persons other than members of a recognized stock exchange is illegal
  • SEBI has prohibited activity under regulations 3 and 4 of SEBI Prohibition of Fraudulent and Unfair Trade Practices. Dabba trading is also punishable under the Indian Penal Code and the Information Technology Act of 2000.
  • Despite the risk involved, dabba trading can be profitable since it is not governed by any rules and regulations.
  • Transactions are settled in cash and orders are taken personally by the operators of the dabba system.
Since it is illegal, profits earned through dabba trading are not subject to income tax.


Utsa Patnaik wins Malcolm Adiseshiah Award 2023

Utsa Patnaik, a renowned economist of national and international repute, has been selected for the Malcolm Adiseshiah Award 2023.


  • The award is given every year by the Malcolm & Elizabeth Adiseshiah Trust.
  • The prestigious national award honours outstanding social scientists selected by a national-level jury specially constituted for this purpose, from the nominations received.

Utsa Patnaik

  • Utsa Patnaik is an Indian Marxian economist.
  • She taught at the Centre for Economic Studies and Planning in the School of Social Sciences at Jawaharlal Nehru University in New Delhi, from 1973 until her retirement in 2010.


Science and Technology

World Chagas Disease Day


Every year on April 14th, World Chagas Disease Day is observed to raise awareness about a life-threatening illness that can cause severe heart and digestive problems.

About the Disease:

  • The disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, silent disease, or silenced disease, is caused by the Trypanosoma cruzi parasite, which is transmitted to humans by the triatomine bug, commonly known as the kissing bug.
  • The disease primarily affects individuals living in rural areas with poor hygiene conditions, particularly those who are impoverished. It is more common in regions like Central America, Mexico, and South America.
  • World Chagas Disease Day 2023: Theme
  • The theme for 2023 is Time to integrate Chagas disease into primary health care, so that universal care and surveillance start at the most decentralized level of the health system.


SIDBI Launches 'Mission 50K-EV4ECO' 

Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI) has announced the launch of a pilot scheme called 'Mission 50K-EV4ECO' aimed at strengthening the electric vehicle (EV) ecosystem.


  • 'Mission 50K-EV4ECO' aims to promote EV adoption and strengthen associated infrastructure in the country.
  • The pilot scheme, which is a precursor to the EVOLVE scheme by SIDBI-World Bank.

Indian Policies on EVs


  • In 2010, the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), announced a financial incentive for manufacturers for EVs sold in India.
  • In 2013, India unveiled the National Electric Mobility Mission Plan (NEMMP) 2020.
  • In the Union Budget 2015-16, the ‘Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of EVs’ (FAME) scheme was announced, with an initial outlay of Rs. 75 crore.
  • In 2017, the Transport Ministryhighlighted its intent to move to 100 percent electric cars by 2030.
  • In February 2019, the Union Cabinet cleared an  10,000-crore programmeunder the FAME-II scheme.



Cumbum grapes gets GI Tag

Cumbum grapes from Tamil Nadu received the Geographical Indication (GI) label.


  • Cumbum grapes is also known as the Cumbum Panneer Thratchai. 
  • The Cumbum valley, located in Tamil Nadu's Western Ghats, is regarded as the "Grapes City of South India'' and grows the Panneer Thratchai.
  • This variety, sometimes known as Muscat Hamburg, accounts for over 85% of the grape-growing areas in Tamil Nadu.
  • Theni district is one of Panneer Thratchai's highest grape-producing locations.
  • However, the 'Panneer' type is most closely linked with Cumbum Valley, where the agricultural area spans over 2,000 acres across ten villages. 
  • The Cumbum region's agro-climate and soil conditions are ideal for the cultivation of the Muscat varietal.
  • This grape quality is suitable for making wine, spirits, jams, canned grape juice, and raisins.
  • These grapes are high in vitamins, tartaric acid, and antioxidants, and they help to lower the risk of some chronic diseases. Apart from their purplish-brown color, they are also noted for their exceptional taste.

These grapes were introduced in Tamil Nadu in 1832 by a French priest.


‘India’s largest’ aquarium, aviary to come up at Telangana’s Eco-Park

Hyderabad is all set to have the country’s largest aquarium, which will be housed at Echo Hill Park in Kothwalguda.


  • The Kothwalguda Eco-Park includes, in addition to gazebos and pergolas, a six-acre aviary, a 2.5-kilometre boardwalk, an aquarium, a butterfly garden, a sensory park, an open-air theatre, flora, and landscaping.

Science & Technology

Pralay ballistic missiles


India plans to acquire 250 more Pralay ballistic missiles to further bolster its own 'rocket force'.


Pralay Ballistic Missile is an indigenous short-range ballistic surface-to-surface (SRBM) missile.

  • This conventional weapon has a range of 150 to 500 kilometres.
  • It is propelled by a solid-propellant rocket motor and other novel technologies.
  • The Pralay missile project was sanctioned in 2015 and is a derivative of the Prahaar missile programme, which was first tested in 2011.
  • The missile guidance system has integrated avionics and cutting-edge navigation. The Indian Air Force would be the first to receive the missile, and then the Indian Army.

Science & Technology

Scientists identifies Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron (EMIC) waves

Scientists have identified Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron (EMIC) waves, a form of plasma waves in the Indian Antarctic station, Maitri, and studied its characteristics.


  • The electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are generally detected in the Earth's magnetosphere and have a small wave normal angle and left-hand polarization in the source region.
  • Formation: The waves are formed when low-energy ions in the magnetosphere interact with electromagnetic fields, causing the ions to spiral along the magnetic field lines.
  • EMIC waves accelerate electrons to very high energies and can cause the particles in the radiation belts to scatter, accelerate, and precipitate into the Earth's atmosphere, which can lead to changes in the distribution and intensity of the radiation belts.

More than 99% of the matter in the visible universe consists of plasma—the fourth state of matter.

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