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The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA)

Published: 5th Apr, 2021

The U.S. and Iran said that they would begin negotiations through intermediaries to try to get both countries back into an accord limiting Iran’s nuclear programme


The U.S. and Iran said that they would begin negotiations through intermediaries to try to get both countries back into an accord limiting Iran’s nuclear programme


  • The announcement marked the first major progress in efforts to return both countries to the 2015 accord, which bound Iran to restrictions on its nuclear programmes in return for relief from U.S. and international sanctions.
  • But Iran and the U.S. have disagreed over Iran's demands that sanctions be lifted first.
  • Trump pulled the U.S. out of the accord in 2018, opting for a “maximum pressure” campaign of stepped-up U.S. sanctions and other tough actions.
  • Iran responded by intensifying its enrichment of uranium and building of centrifuges, while maintaining its insistence that its nuclear development was for civilian and not military purposes.
  • Iran’s moves increased pressure on major world powers over the Trump administration's sanctions and raised tensions among U.S. allies and strategic partners in West Asia.
  • Agreement on the start of indirect talks came after the EU helped broker a virtual meeting of officials from Britain, China, France, Germany, Russia and Iran, which have remained in the accord, known as the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA).

Iran Nuclear Deal

  • It is also known as the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA).
  • The JCPOA was the result of prolonged negotiations from 2013 and 2015 between Iran and P5+1 (China, France, Germany, Russia, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the European Union, or the EU).
  • Iran agreed to significantly cut its stores of centrifuges, enriched uranium and heavy-water, all key components for nuclear weapons under this treaty.

India–Iran relations

  • Trade ties: There are significant trade ties, particularly in crude oil imports into India and diesel exports to Iran.
  • Supporter of India at various platforms: Iran frequently objected to Pakistan's attempts to draft anti-India resolutions at international organisations such as the OIC and the Human Rights Commission.
  • Inclusion as an observer state in the SAARC: India welcomed Iran's inclusion as an observer state in the SAARC regional organisation.
  • Zaranj-Delaram Highway: A highway between Zaranj and Delaram is being built with financial support from India.
  • The Chabahar port: has also been jointly financed by Iran and India. It will give it access to the oil and gas resources in Iran and the Central Asian states.
  • Members in the North–South Transport Corridor: It is the ship, rail, and road route for moving freight between India, Russia, Iran, Europe, the Caucasus, and Central Asia.
  • Religious factor: The world's largest population of Zoroastrians are the Parsi community in India.

    Chenab River

    • It is a major river that flows in India and Pakistan, and is one of the 5 major rivers of the Punjab region.
    • It rises in the upper Himalayas in the Lahaul and Spiti district of Himachal Pradesh state, India, and flows through the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir into the plains of Punjab, Pakistan, before flowing into the Indus River.
    • The waters of the Chenab were allocated to Pakistan under the terms of the Indus Waters Treaty.
    • The river is formed by the confluence of two rivers, Chandra and Bhaga.

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