What's New :
IAS Foundation (Prelims + Mains) 2025-26. Batch Starts: 13th December. Get Details
Samarth - Answer Writing Skill Development Program. Get Details

Short News Article

  • Published
    4th Feb, 2023

International Relations

Paris Club

The Paris Club, an informal group of creditor nations, will provide financial assurances to the International Monetary Fund on Sri Lanka’s debt.


  • The Paris Club is a group of mostly western creditor countries that grew from a 1956 meeting in which Argentina agreed to meet its public creditors in Paris. 
  • Objective: To find sustainable debt-relief solutions for countries those are unable to repay their bilateral loans.
  • It describes itself as a forum where official creditors meet to solve payment difficulties faced by debtor countries.
  • The members are: Australia, Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Israel, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Russia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the United States.
  • All 22 are members of the group called Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).

Polity and Governance

Budget boost for Tribes





The Union Budget 2023-24 has issued funds for welfare of Tribals which is in line with the Odhisha’s scheme.


  • The Central government’s PM-PVTG (Pradhan Mantri Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups) programme is in line with the Odisha government’s own PVTG Empowerment and Livelihood Improvement Programme (OPELIP), launched in 2015 for the upliftment of tribals, giving the Odisha government hope that it will have more funds for its special programme for Adivasi communities.
  • Funds allocated: A budget of Rs.15, 000 crore is earmarked for the purpose.
  • Objective of the scheme:
    • The PM-PVTG scheme aims to improve the socio-economic conditions of the tribes listed as beneficiaries, by extending basic facilities such as housing, clean drinking water, sanitation, improved access to education, health, nutrition, roads, telecom connectivity and sustained livelihood opportunities, to them.

PVTGs in India:

  • There are 75 PVTGs identified in India.
  • Odisha has 13, namely Birhor, Bondo, Chuktia Bhunjia, Didayi, Juang, Kharia, Dongria Kondh, Lanjia Saora, Lodha, Mankidia, Paudi Bhuyan and Saora.
  • The PVTGs are spread over 32,000 households in 542 villages under 84 gram panchayats of 12 districts.
  • Their population at present stands at 2.5 lakh in the state alone.


Rare bird species at Renuka Ji wildlife sanctuary

Two new feathery visitors, Baikal Teal and Orange-Bellied leafbird, have been sighted at Renuka Ji wildlife sanctuary during this winter migratory bird season.


  • This is the first such sighting of two rare birds in Himachal Pradesh.
  • The two species includes;
    • Orange-bellied leafbird is the other species sighted for the first time in the state.
    • Its characteristic habitat is in the North-East India. As the bird feeds on nectar, it was spotted on the bottlebrush plant.
    • Baikal Teal breeds in the far-east on the edges of Tundra and has made its way through the Asian flyway to reach Renuka Ji wetland.


Ladakh’s first biodiversity heritage site (BHS)

Yaya Tso, known as birds' paradise for its beautiful lake has been proposed as Ladakh’s first biodiversity heritage site (BHS).


  • Yaya Tso is a nesting habitat for a large number of birds and animals, such as the bar-headed goose, black-necked crane and brahminy duck.
  • It is located at an altitude of 4,820 metres.
  • It also has the distinction of being one of the highest breeding sites of the black-necked crane in India.


Follow on Public Offer (FPO)

Under FPO, a company that is already listed on a stock exchange, issues new shares to existing investors or shareholders.


  • Follow on Public Offer is a process whereby a company that is already listed on a stock exchange, issues new shares to existing investors or shareholders.
  • It is also known as a secondary offering. In other words, FPO allows a company to raise additional funds through the issuance of new shares.
  • FPO is different from Initial Public Offer (IPO).
    • IPO is the first sale of shares to the public while FPO is Follow on Public Offer. FPO typically occurs after the company has completed an IPO.
    • FPO also allows investors to increase their stake in a company.
    • It also provides an opportunity to new investors to buy stakes in a company.

Science and Technology

Dar es Salaam Declaration







The inaugural countries leading the Global Alliance to End AIDS in Children together with community representatives, UN agencies, stakeholders and partners gathered in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania on February 1st, 2023, to discuss our progress and our plans to end AIDS in Children by 2030.


To achieve the goal of ending AIDS in children, the declaration calls to intentionally strengthen, coordinate and resource robust national programs by:

  • Providing access to universal testing and treatment for all children and adolescents living with HIV and supporting them to remain virally suppressed.
  • Ensuring access to treatment and care for all pregnant and breastfeeding women and supporting them to stay in care.
  • Harnessing digital technologies to reach adolescents and young people;
  • Implementing comprehensive, integrated HIV services.
  • Working with and for men, women and adolescent girls to ensure that mothers are protected from acquiring HIV during pregnancy and breastfeeding.
  • Ending the stigma, discrimination, and gender inequities experienced by women, children, and adolescents affected by HIV.
  • Working with communities including men to prevent gender-based violence and counter harmful gender norms.
  • Ring fencing budgets for ending AIDS in children.
  • Partnering with people living with HIV and communities in all our work.
  • Monitoring and sharing our progress and learning for joint accountability and for the benefit of all.
GS Mains Classes GS Classes 2024 GS Classes 2024 UPSC Study Material

Verifying, please be patient.

Our Centers

DELHI (Karol Bagh)

GS SCORE, 1B, Second Floor, Pusa Road, Karol Bagh, New Delhi - 110005 (Beside Karol Bagh Metro Station Gate No. 8)

Get directions on Google Maps

BHUBANESWAR (Jaydev Vihar)

GS SCORE, Plot No.2298, Jaydev Vihar Square, Near HCG Day Care, BBSR - 751013

Get directions on Google Maps

LUCKNOW (Aliganj)

GS SCORE, 2nd Floor, B-33, Sangam Chauraha, Sector H, Aliganj, Lucknow, UP - 226024

Get directions on Google Maps

Enquire Now