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  • Published
    20th Feb, 2023

Art & Culture (GS-I)

In Srinagar, fighting seismic threats the Mughal style

Srinagar, placed on the National Center for Seismology’s Zone-V, can be saved in case of a natural calamity by reconnecting with older methods of architecture and construction. 

About Uroosi

  • Uroosi, a Mughal-era home architectural element, is one such. Uroosi are wooden shutters used as partition walls within homes, instead of concrete walls. 
  • Uroosi is believed to be a Persian term meaning ‘hidden bride’. 

About Dhajji Diwari

  • Dhajji Diwari or ‘patchwork quilt wall’ in Persian, is another indigenous technique of earthquake-resistant construction.
  • A criss-cross of thin timber frames is filled with mud mortar, stone, and ballast, but this too is waning in Srinagar. 

Environment (GS-III)

Rhododendrons carpet Darjeeling and Sikkim Himalayas

The Darjeeling and Sikkim Himalayas are home to more than a third of all rhododendron species found in India, according to the latest publication of the Botanical Survey of India (BSI).


  • A rhododendron is a garden plant that originates from South and South-East Asia.
  • This ornamental plant is as an evergreen bush or shrub.
  • Its most striking feature, however, is the way it flowers abundantly.
  • In spring, it lights up the entire garden with flowers in blue, yellow, lilac, orange, purple, pink or white.
    • Some varieties even have bi-coloured flowers.

Presence in India

  • There are 132 taxa (80 species, 25 subspecies and 27 varieties) of rhododendrons found in India.
  • Of the 45 taxa recorded in the publication, 24 are found in the Darjeeling Himalayas and 44 in the Sikkim Himalayas.


Telangana’s Teja chilli is hot property in many nations

The burgeoning demand for the Teja variety of red chilli, in the export market is proving to be a boon for the Khammam Agriculture Market, housing Telangana’s second largest chilli market yard.


  • Teja or S17 is one of the hottest varieties of red chillies produced in India.
  • It is famous for its culinary, medicinal and other wide-ranging uses.
  • Khammam district is the largest producer of Teja variety of red chilli.
  • This variety is not only known for its culinary purpose as a flavouring agent to spice up various delicacies but as a main ingredient in making pepper spray.

Science & Technology (GS-III)

Vertiplane X3

In the first-of-its-kind test and demonstration in Uttarakhand, the Vertiplane X3 drone carried 2 kg of anti-tuberculosis drugs, dropped the medicines at the district hospital, and returned to AIIMS with tuberculosis samples from patients in Tehri.


  •  Vertiplane X3 is the fastest ‘made-in-India hybrid’ e-VTOL (electric vertical take-off and landing) drone with a maximum speed of 120 kmph, distance coverage of 100 km and a payload capacity of 3 kg.
  • Studded with multiple fail-safe options and a dynamic design, this UAV is ideal for the delivery of cargo for healthcare, defence, maritime, hyperlocal, and e-commerce.
  • The drone has two propulsion systems, one for vertical motion and second for forward motion.

Science & Technology (GS-III)

Chandrayaan-3 successfully completes crucial test

The Chandrayaan-3 lander has successfully completed the crucial EMI-EMC (Electro - Magnetic Interference/ Electro - Magnetic Compatibility) test at the U.R. Rao Satellite Centre in Bengaluru. 


  • Chandrayaan-3 is a follow-on mission to Chandrayaan-2 to demonstrate end-to-end capability in safe landing and roving on the lunar surface.
  • It consists of Lander and Rover configuration.
  • It will be launched by GSLV MkIII from SDSC, Sriharikota.
  • The propulsion module will carry the lander and rover configuration till 100km lunar orbit.
  • The propulsion module has Spectro-polarimetry of HAbitable Planet Earth (SHAPE) payload to study the spectral and polarimetric measurements of Earth from the lunar orbit.


Environment (GS-III)

Centre announces list of tech for carbon credits

The Union government has finalised a list of activities to be considered for trading of carbon credits under Article 6.2 mechanism to facilitate transfer of emerging technologies and mobilise international finance in India.

The Activities

  • Overall 13 activities have been finalised under three heads – GHG mitigation activities, alternate materials, and removal activities.
  •   GHG Mitigation Activities:
  1. Renewable energy with storage (only stored component)
  2. Solar thermal power
  3. Off- shore wind
  4. Green Hydrogen
  5. Compressed bio-gas
  6. Emerging mobility solutions like fuel cells 
  7. High end technology for energy efficiency
  8. Sustainable Aviation Fuel
  9. Best available technologies for process improvement in hard to abate sectors
  10. Tidal energy, Ocean Thermal Energy, Ocean Salt Gradient Energy, Ocean Wave Energy and Ocean Current Energy
  11. High Voltage Direct Current Transmission in conjunction with the renewable energy projects
    Alternate Materials:
  12. Green Ammonia
    Removal Activities:
  13. Carbon Capture Utilization and Storage
  • These activities will facilitate adoption/transfer of emerging technologies and may be used to mobilise international finance in India.
  • The activities will initially be for the first three years and may be updated/revised by NADAIPA

India also notified the National designated Authority for the Implementation of the Paris Agreement (NDAIAPA) in May 2022.

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