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28th October 2022 (8 Topics)

Tuberculosis cases surged for the first time in many years: WHO


According to the recently released report on Global TB Report 2022 by WHO, highlighted the concerns over the growing cases of Tuberculosis and people dying due to the disease.

The Global TB Report:

  • It was found that 6 million people fell ill due to TB in 2021 with an increase of 4.5 percent from 2020, and 1.6 million people died from TB.
  • The burden of drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) also increased by 3 percent between 2020 and 2021, with 450 000 new cases of rifampicin-resistant TB (RR-TB) in 2021.
  • This is the first time in many years an increase has been reported in the number of people falling ill with TB and drug-resistant TB.
  • The number of people provided with treatment for RR-TB and multidrug-resistant TB and multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) has also declined between 2019 and 2020.

Do you know?

  • The main source is the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria across the world.
  • The United States is the largest contributor of funding to the Global Fund and is also the largest bilateral donor; overall, it contributes close to 50 percent of international donor funding for TB.

About Tuberculosis (TB):

  • TB is caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis, belonging to the Mycobacteriaceae family consisting of about 200 members.
  • In humans, TB most commonly affects the lungs (pulmonary TB), but it can also affect other organs (extra-pulmonary TB).
  • TB is a very ancient disease and has been documented to have existed in Egypt as early as 3000 BC.
  • TB is a treatable and curable disease.
  • Transmission: TB is spread from person to person through the air. When people with lung TB cough, sneeze, or spit, they propel the TB germs into the air.

Treatments available for TB:

  • Drugs:
  • For previously treated cases of TB, the intensive phase is of 12 weeks, where injection of streptomycin is given for eight weeks along with four drugs FDCs (INH, Rifampicin, Pyrazinamide, and Ethambutol).
  • Second-line drugs are the TB drugs that are used for the treatment of drug-resistant TB. The second line drugs include levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, bedaquiline, delamanid and linezolid.
  • Vaccines: Currently, the following two vaccines have been developed and identified for TB, and are under Phase-3 clinical trial:
  • VPM (Vaccine Projekt Management) 1002
  • MIP (Mycobacterium Indicus Pranii)

Important Facts:

  • World TB Day is observed on March 24.
  • TB Mukt Bharat (TB-free India): India is committed to ending the TB epidemic by 2025, five years ahead of the SDG target timeline.
  • Important national and international initiative to end TB:
    • National TB Elimination Programme (NTEP)
    • National Strategic Plan (NSP) for Tuberculosis Elimination (2017-2025)
    • The Nikshay Ecosystem (National TB information system)
    • Nikshay Poshan Yojana (NPY- financial support)
    • TB Harega Desh Jeetega Campaign.
    • TB Free India Campaign
    • Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP)
    • International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union)

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