Perspective of Rural Development
A very important facet of rural development has been the Swachh Bharat Mission. This issue looks at how the Swachh Bharat Mission in its second phase will provide impetus to the rural economy through construction of household toilets and need based community sanitary complexes, as well as the infrastructure for solid and liquid waste management. This issue also outlines the many infrastructure schemes for rural India.
Health, education and infrastructure facilities are the cornerstones of social and economic development. Programmes such as Samagra Shiksha and BetiBachaoBetiPadhaohave been playing a major role in ensuring quality education for rural India. Rural entrepreneurial talent and frugal innovations catering to rural markets have the potential to revolutionise the rural ecosystem. The only requirement is some nurturing and handholding. The advent of new reforms in the agricultural sector offers an opportunity to the young innovators living the agricultural challenge to institutionalise local solutions.
Doubling rural incomes is one of the biggest objectives of government policies. This will be possible only if animal husbandry is integrated into agriculture and allied sectors with the salient policies ensuring their effective as well as timely implementation.
Delivering Quality Education
Developing Youth as Change Makers
Digital Push and Transformation of the Agrarian Economy
All these efforts stated shall not only be beneficial for the holistic development of the rural economy today but also will have a sustainable future for an AatmaNirbhar Bharat that can serve the world.
Objectives of the SBM Phase II
Guiding Principles for Implementation of SBM Phase II
Information, Education and Communication (IEC)
Role of Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs)
Research and Development
Monitoring and Evaluation
The Way Forward
Rooting for Rural Education
Samagra Shiksha Scheme
Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya (JNVs)
Eklavya Model Residential Schools (EMRS)
Mid-Day Meal Scheme
Targeted intervention for Girls (under Samagra Shiksha)
Kasturba Gandhi BalikaVidyalayas
Beti Bachao Beti Padhao
Empowering the Rural Woman
Mahila Shakti Kendra Scheme
Adult Literacy Programmes
Saakshar Bharat Programme (operational till March 2018)
PadhnaLikhnaAbhiyaan(replacing Saakshar Bharat Programme)
Skills Training in Higher Education
Scheme for Higher Education Youth in Apprenticeship and Skills (SHREYAS)
National Apprenticeship Training Scheme (NATS)
Pradhan MantriKaushal VikasYojana (PMKVY)
Characteristics of the agricultural produce marketing in India:
On June, 2020, the Government promulgated three ordinances on farmers' produce trade and commerce; farmer agreement of price assurance and farm services; and essential commodity. Subsequently, the three Bills were passed by the Parliament on 20 September, 2020 to replace the ordinances.
However, a fraction of farmers, farmer bodies and experts started expressing the serious apprehensions about these Bills that these laws will lead to:-
These apprehensions, though imaginative, have somehow percolated deeply in a section of the farmers, the largest being those who have been the biggest beneficiaries of APMC dominated procurements and the price realisation.
The Farmers' Produce Trade and Commerce (Promotion and Facilitation) Bill, 2020
The need is to establish a robust and accountable market intelligence system packed with technology and well-trained scientific manpower to minimise the chances of any manipulation in prices of the produce. Higher private investment could happen with reforms in agricultural market leading to price assurances and unabated flow of food items from centre of production to major centre of consumptions.
The Farmers (Empowerment and Protection) Agreement of Price Assurance and Farm Services Bill, 2020
The contract farming with Nestle, for milk in Punjab's Moga district operating since 1961 could be an example to cite. Over one lakh farmers are associated with the contract. Nestle has been providing the technical guidance, feed, vaccines and veterinary services to milk producers. A high order supply chain has been established based on a pre-announced weekly price based on the fat and solid content in the milk. The assets of the farmers have not been taken by the MNC.
The Essential Commodities (Amendment) Act, 2020
We must note that the gap between required and existing infrastructure is 70 percent in pack houses, 98 percent in reefer vehicles and 94 percent in ripening chambers. By creating these infrastructures, much needed income to farmers will be augmented to a large extent.
Key elements of 73rd Amendment Act of 1992
Organisation of Gram Sabhas
Composition of Panchayats
Three-tier Structure of Panchayati Raj
Devolution of Funds, Function and Functionaries to PRIs
Rising Financial Devolution to PRIs
Challenges in Livestock Sector
Coverage and Access for Rural Healthcare
Some Programmes for Rural Health Care
While the efforts of JSY and other schemes improved the number of institutional deliveries from 38.7 percent to 78.9 percent in the 10 years from 2005 to 2015, the maternal and newborn mortality rates were not affected significantly. The rural focus of the programme has gaps that must be bridged.
To begin with, focus on incentivising medical staff to serve the rural community is a starting point to ensure all programmes are efficiently delivered. As we move towards gaining from our demographic dividend in the next 20-30years, we must ensure quality and timely delivery of services across the country.
Roads in Rural India
It was the first time since independence, on 25 December 2000, the Government of India had launched the Pradhan MantriGrameenSadakYojana (PMGSY) with the aim to provide all weather access to eligible unconnected habitations. It is a 100 percent centrally sponsored scheme (CSS) which cover only rural areas, and urban roads are excluded from the preview of this programme.
Affordable and easy access to high schools and higher secondary schools is the need of the hour. Education leads to multiple opportunities. Affordable and easily accessible health facilities is also the prime focus of the government for which road connectivity plays an important role. All-weather roads have shown a very positive correlation to improvement in health indicators.
DeendayalUpadhyaya Gram JyotiYojana (DDUGJY) launched in 2015 with two components:
Pradhan MantriUjjwalaYojana (PMUY)
Pradhan MantriSahajBijliHarGharYojana (Saubhagya)
Social and Commercial Infrastructure
Pradhan MantriAwaasYojana (Gramin)
However, there is also a need for further strengthening of monitoring mechanism in order to make the scheme more efficient in terms of maintaining quality, saving time and resources, and at the same time, ensuring both tangible and intangible benefits to the beneficiaries.
Water and Sanitation
Jal Jeevan Mission (HarGhar Jal)
Swachha Bharat Mission (Grameen)
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