Water Conservation: Initiatives and Future Strategies
NamamiGange programme, implemented by National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG) is an integrated mission for conservation of Ganga and its tributaries. A comprehensive Ganga River Basin Management Plan (GRBMP) was developed by a consortium of seven IITs. The vision is to restore the wholesomeness of the River by ensuring Aviraland NirmalDhara, and maintaining its geo-hydrological and ecological integrity.
Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM) approach is followed with multi-sectoral and multi-agency interventions such as (I) pollution abatement (Nirmal Ganga), (II) improving ecology and flow (Aviral Ganga), (III) strengthen people river connect (Jan Ganga) and (IV) facilitate diversified research, scientific mapping, studies and evidence-based policy formulation (Gyan Ganga).
Pollution Abatement (Nirmal Ganga)
Pollution abatement measures comprehensively tackle all sources of pollution such as municipal sewage, industrial effluents, municipal solid waste, rural sanitation, non-point sources of pollution such as agricultural runoff, open defecation, un-burnt dead bodies etc.
Ecology and Flow (Aviral Ganga)
People River Connect (Jan Ganga)
NamamiGange mission accords prime importance to People River Connect and is taking several steps for making it a people's movement.
Research, Policy and Knowledge Management (Gyan Ganga)
In 2019 India achieved a historical milestone when it declared the country as open defecation free (ODF). SwachhBharal Mission-Gramin (SBM-G) Phase II now seeks to both build upon the achievements and sustain them, by investing in ODF-sustainability activities such as improved hygiene practices, solid and liquid waste management, and operation and maintenance of infrastructures.
The objectives of SBM(G) II are critical elements of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) on sanitation; target of SDG Goal 6 is "by 2030, achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all, and end open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations.
SBM(G) Phase I (2014-2019): Success Factors
SBM (G)-II scope and focus:
A budget of Rs 140,881 crores has been approved for the five years (2019-20 to 2024-25) programme period. Two key components of the programme are highlighted below.
Framework for Empowering the PRI’s
Water and Government Initiatives
Salient or Key Features of the Mission
The SwachhSharat Mission (SBM) was launched as a mass movement to bring about behavioral changes for crores of people in India and instill healthy sanitation practices in their daily lives. The socio-economic impact of SBM has been phenomenal both in terms of improving sanitation in hinterland but also improvement in health parameters especially for women and children.
The main objectives of SBM(G) are:
Various Initiatives taken up as part of SBM includeNamamiGangeto make villages near Ganga ODF,SwachhSwasthSarvatrato strengthen community health centres, RashtriyaSwachhata Kendra to monitor the progress of SBM programme, Swachhata at Petrol Pumps andSwachh Bharat App & Web Portal to monitor coordination between various departments and ministries.
Impact Assessment of SBM
The UNICEF studied the Financial and Economic Impact of the Swachh Bharat Mission in India in November 2018. Key Findings:
A study titled - Access to toilets and the safety, convenience and self-respect of women in rural India was conducted in collaboration between UNICEF, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF), Sambodhi Research and Communications Private Limited with assistance from Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation, Ministry of Jal Shakti. Key findings:
SBM (G)-phase II also referred ODF Plus
The SBM-G Phase II is aimed at generating employment and providing impetus to the rural economy through construction of household toilets and community toilets, as well as infrastructure for SLWM such as compost pits, soak pits, waste stabilization ponds, material recovery facilities etc.
An adequate quantity of good quality water is essential for health as is access to sanitation facilities with appropriate disposal of sewage. Coupled with good hygiene practices, these two elements play a crucial role in reducing morbidity and mortality.
Expanding Sanitation Coverage
India has made tremendous strides in the area of sanitation over the last few years. This transformation has been made possible through a combination of factors:
As defined by WHO -'Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of any disease or infirmity'.
Women's Health refers to the branch of medicine that focuses on the treatment/diagnosis of diseases or conditions that affect a woman's physical and emotional well-being.
Health is one of the fundamental human rights. As per Article 47 of the India's Constitution - "The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and, in particular, the State shall endeavor to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health"
National Health Policy (NHP; launched in 1983) was revamped in 2017 with an aim to inform, clarify, strengthen and prioritise the Government's role in shaping the health systems holistically covering all its dimensions: health related investments, organisation of the healthcare services, disease prevention and promotion of good health through appropriate inter-sectoral coordination, use of updated technologies, human resource development, strengthening healthcare systems and health assurance. Further, NHP has identified priority areas for improving health of the people through coordinated action which include:
Govt initiatives to support health and nutrition in rural India specially for women-
Status of Safe Drinking Water
Status of Rural Sanitation
Government Expenditure on Rural Drinking Water and Sanitation
Economic and Health Effects
Challenges and Future Initiatives
Decentralised Governance in India: A Historical Perspective
Panchayati Raj Institution in India
PRI and implementation of Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act
Livelihood Promotion Scheme and PRI
Current Development Challenge and PRI
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