Swachh Bharat Mission Phase II aims for SampoornaSwachhata
27th Jan, 2021
- The Government of India, in February 2020, approved the Phase II of the Swachh Bharat Mission- Grameen (SBM-G) with a total outlay of Rs. 1,40, 881 crores to focus on the solid and liquid waste management (SLWM) and on the sustainability of ODF status.
- SBM-G in its first phase devoted itself in making India Open Defecation Free. As a result, rural sanitation coverage has increased from 39 percent in 2014 to 100 percent in 2019 with over 10.2 crore toilets built across Indian districts, converting them to ODF. Achieving ODF status was the first great peak conquered, in a series of many more such peaks.
- India achieved SDG Goal for providing safe sanitation for all 11 years before the targeted year 2030.
- The success of the programme is attributed to the 4 Ps - political leadership, public financing, partnerships and public participation.
- The Swachh Bharat Mission in its second phase is committed to achieve Sampoorna Swachhata by transforming the Mission into a Jan andolan.
- The Phase II will provide impetus to the rural economy through construction of household toilets and need based community sanitary complexes, as well as the infrastructure for solid and liquid waste management such as compost pits, soak pits, waste stabilisation ponds, bio-gas plants, material recovery facilities etc.
Objectives of the SBM Phase II
- The key objective of the SBM Phase 11 became to make villages across India ODF Plus villages. An ODF Plus village is defined as a village that sustains its open defecation free (ODF) status and also ensures solid and liquid waste management and Is visually clean. A village is called visually clean if at least 80 percent of its households and all its public places have minimal litter and minimal stagnant water, and the village does not have any plastic waste dump.
- To declare a village ODF Plus following checklist Is provided in the guidelines:
- All households to have access to a functional toilet facility.
- All schools, Anganwadicentres and Panchayat Ghars have access to a functional toilet, with separate toilets for female and male.
- Public places to be visually clean.
- At least 80 percent households and all public institutions have arrangements for managing biodegradable solid and liquid waste.
- The village has a plastic segregation and collection system.
- At least five ODF Plus IEC wall paintings per villages on five key themes of ODF sustainability, hand washing with soap, biodegradable waste management through compost pits, grey water management through soak pits and plastic waste management
- Components of the SBM Phase II include constructions of individual household latrines, retrofitting of toilets, need based construction of community sanitary complexes, biodegradable waste management, GOBAR-dhan (Galvanising Organic Bio-Agro Resources-dhan), plastic waste management, grey water management andfaecal sludge management.
Guiding Principles for Implementation of SBM Phase II
- Ensuring that no one is left behind.
- Promotion of Reduce, Reuse and Recycle to reduce the generation of waste at source.
- Utilisation of Existing SLWM infrastructure wherever possible by rejuvenating, upgrading and putting them in use.
- To ensure that every household in the village has access to solid and liquid waste management (SLWM).
- Operation and maintenance to be an obligatory component of planning.
- Encouragement of technologies with low operation and maintenance costs.
- States will have the flexibility in deciding appropriate implementation mechanism and to choose technologies best suited to their conditions.
- Clustering of villages for maximum economic efficiency: Wherever necessary and possible, villages from different GPs can be clustered.
- Convergence with other schemes: For example, Finance Commission funds for co-financing of assets; JalJeevan Mission for grey water management; MGNREGS for dovetailing of funds and functionaries; and Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship for skill development of field functionaries
- Creating self-sustainable revenue models/ business models by encouraging private sector to leverage its expertise and resources for meeting the growing demand of SLWM.
Information, Education and Communication (IEC)
- IEC of the Swachh Bharat Mission campaign had seen thousands of behavior change campaigns, iconic mass media campaigns and participation of millions of students, women, teachers, cadets, celebrities, political leaders, faith leaders and people from all walks of life; making it a true Jan Andolan.
- 5 percent of the total project expenditure has been provided for IEC and Capacity Building for SBM (G) Phase II. In Phase I, it was 8 percent for the IEC. The States have to put in its share of funds for IEC in the Centre to State ratio of 60:40, except NER/ Special Category States where the sharing ratio is 90:10.
- Key IEC messages for ODF Plus are: Waste Segregation and Source, Menstrual Waste Management and Hygiene Promotion.
- Key Stakeholders include members of Village Water and Sanitation Committee (VWSC), Block Water and Sanitation Committee (BWSC), District Water and Sanitation Mission (DWSM), Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA), Anganwadi, Self Help Groups, CS0s/ NGOs
- Training workshops, refresher trainings for sensitisation, awareness generation and technical knowhow are important to build the capacity of human resources.
- Orientation and training may be on various aspects of ODF Plus, including promoting behavioral change through IPC, door to door visits, masonry work, plumbing, and constriction of compost pits, soak pits, sheds, and other SLWM activities.
- Swachhagrahies are the foot soldiers of the SBM(G) and have proved excellent motivators in bringing behaviour change for construction and usage of toilets.
Role of Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs)
- As per the 73rd Constitutional Amendment Act, 1992, sanitation is included in the 11th Schedule. Therefore, the role of Gram Panchayat (GP) is pivotal in implementing SBM (G).
- Receiving funds, subject to conformity with State arrangements, and contributing from their own resources for the financing of community toilets and SLWM infrastructure are some of the important roles of the PRIs.
- With the support from the District, the GPs are expected to engage with business, corporate, social organisations and financial institutions for creation of assets and their operation and maintenance (O&M).
- The GP is also the custodian of the assets such as community sanitary complexes, drainages and SLWM infrastructure.
- The monitoring of the Phase II activities are assigned to the Block level and District level PRIs.
Research and Development
- At the Government of India level, a technical committee headed by the Principal Scientific Advisor to the Prime Minister, has been set up to consult for new technologies and innovations in the sector.
- A Research and Development Advisory Committee under the chairpersonship of Joint / Additional Secretary of the Department works to promote research and development activities for the sanitation.
Monitoring and Evaluation
- DDWS leads the monitoring and evaluation of the SBM Phase II work in coordination with the States/UTs and Districts. The monitoring and evaluation have two aspects: first is ensuring the status of ODF Plus villages and second is that of created assets and expenditure incurred.
- Monitoring of both qualitative (outcomes) and quantitative (output) progress.
The Way Forward
- “Cleanliness campaign is a journey, which will go on continuously.”
- After ODF, the country is now working on the goal of ODF plus. Now we have to improve the management of waste, be it in a city or a village. We have to speed up the work of making wealth out of waste.