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30th January 2023 (6 Topics)

All India Survey on Higher Education (AISHE) 2020-21


The Union Ministry of Education has released data from the All India Survey on Higher Education (AISHE), 2020-2021, which showed a 7.5% increase in student enrolments across the country as compared to 2019-20.

Key highlights of the survey:
  • The data shows that total student enrolments reached 4.13 crore.
  • The rise in distance education:
    • The survey also revealed that in the year when the COVID-19 pandemic began, there was a 7% rise in enrolments in distance education programmes.
  • Increase in enrolment of students from weaker sections of society:
    • There were 2 lacks more SC students enrolled in 2020-21 compared to the previous survey.
    • About 3 lack more ST students and 6 lack more OBC students getting enrolled for higher education.
  • Overall enrolment reduced:
    • While the increase was noted in absolute numbers compared to 2019-20, the proportion of SC students dropped to 14.2% in 2020-21 from 14.7% the previous year.
    • The proportion of OBC students also dropped to 35.8% in 2020-21 from 37% the previous year. 
  • Data for minority communities:
    • The proportion of Muslim students enrolling on higher education dropped from 5.5% in 2019-20 to 4.6% in 2020-21.
    • Also the proportion of ‘other minority students’ dropped from 2.3% to 2% in the year 2020-21.
  • Women participation:
    • Female enrolment in higher education programmes had increased to 49% of total enrolments in 2020-21 compared to 45% the previous year.
  • The Gross Enrolment Ratio: For all enrolments (as per the 2011 Census) increased by over 2 points to 27.3.

The highest enrolment was seen at the undergraduate level, which accounted for 78.9% of all enrolments, followed by postgraduate level courses, which accounted for 11.4% of the year’s total enrolments.

The popular courses:
  • At Undergraduate level: The highest enrolment at the undergraduate level was in the Arts stream, followed by science and Engineering.
  • At Postgraduate level: At this level, the highest number of enrolment was in the Social science stream.
  • At STEM platform: The overall figures for STEM enrolments (at all levels of higher education) showed that women lagged behind men, who accounted for over 56% of enrolments in these fields.
  • At PhD level: The most popular course was in the field of Engineering and Technology, followed by Science.
The Listing for Institutions:
  • During 2020-21, the number of Universities has increased by 70, and the number of Colleges has increased by 1,453.
  • The maximum increase came in State public universities and State private universities, increasing to 17 and 38 respectively,
  • The number of universities increased followed by a rise of 14 in the number of Institutes of National Importance and an increase of 3 in the number of Central Universities. 
Data for Teachers:
  • The number of teachers increased across higher education institutes, but the SC and ST teachers continued to be under-represented.
  • At the All-India level:
    • 2% of teachers belong to the General category;
    • 2% to OBC
    • 1% to SC and
    • 5% to the ST category
  • Minority community teachers: About 5.6% of teachers come from a Muslim minority group and 8.8% are from other minority groups.
  • Women representation: There were 75 female teachers for every 100 males across institutes in the country.
  • The teacher-pupil ratio:
    • It was at 27 for all universities, colleges and standalone institutions and at 24 if only regular mode is considered.
    • It concluded that the best teacher-pupil ratio was found in States like Tamil Nadu and Karnataka

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