What's New :
Join Our Open Mentorship Sessions, Register here...
UPSC Interview Guidance Program. Register here...

CAG detects anomalies in Assam NRC updation

  • Published
    26th Dec, 2022

The Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG) has detected large-scale anomalies in the updating of the National Register of Citizens (NRC) in Assam.


  • The Supreme Court-monitored NRC exercise was started in October 2013.
  • Over 19 lakhs were excluded from Assam’s final NRC.
  • The CAG submitted its report to the 126-member Assam assembly on December 24th,

Key Points from the report:

  • Lack of proper planning: 215 software utilities were added haphazardly to the core software used for the updating exercise.
    • These were done without following the due process of either software development or selection of vendors through eligibility assessment following a national tendering.
    • Highly secure and reliable software was required for such an exercise.
  • Risk of data tampering" in the NRC for Assam:
    • It is due to “improper" software development.
    • The process hasn’t left any audit trail.
    • The intended objective of preparing a valid and error-free NRC was not met.
  • Increased Cost: The project cost for the NRC escalated from Rs 288.18 crore to Rs 1,602.66 crore due to the time taken to undertake the exercise.


  • Penal Action: The CAG sought penal measures against system integrator Wipro Limited for violation of the Minimum Wages Act:
    • The payment was made to operators at a rate less than the minimum wage.
    • The number of wages paid to the outsourced staff was 45.59-64.27% less than the rate approved by the NRC coordination committee.
  • The difference in wages allowed the undue benefit of Rs 155.83 crores to the system integrator and the labour contractor.

What is the National Register of Citizens?

  • NRC is a register prepared in respect of each village, showing the houses or holdings in a serial order and indicating against each house or holding the number and names of persons staying therein.
  • The register was first prepared after the 1951 Census of India and since then it has not been updated until recently.
    • It has been updated in Assam only for now and the government plans to update it nationally as well.
  • Purpose: To separate “illegal” immigrants from “legitimate” residents.
  • Nodal Agency: Registrar General and Census Commissioner India.

Status of the NRC elsewhere in the Northeast:

  • Assam is the only State in the region that undertook an exercise to update the NRC of 1951 with 24th March 1971, as the cut-off date for citizenship of a person.
  • Nagaland attempted a similar exercise called RIIN (Register of Indigenous Inhabitants of Nagaland) in June 2019 to primarily sift the indigenous Nagas from the non-indigenous Nagas.

About the Comptroller and Auditor General:

  • Constitutional Body: Article 148 provides for an independent office of the CAG. It is the supreme audit institution of India.
  • Other Provisions Related to CAG include:
    • Articles 149-151 (Duties & Powers, Form of Accounts of the Union and the States, and Audit Reports)
    • Article 279 (calculation of net proceeds, etc.)
  • Not eligible for further office, either under the Government of India or of any state, after he ceases to hold his office.
  • Salary and other service conditions are determined by the Parliament.
  • No minister can represent the CAG in Parliament.
  • The administrative expenses of the office of the CAG, including all salaries, allowances, and pensions of persons serving in that office are charged to the Consolidated Fund of India.
GS Mains Classes GS Classes 2024 GS Classes 2024 GS Classes 2024 UPSC Study Material

Verifying, please be patient.

Our Centers

DELHI (Karol Bagh)

GS SCORE, 1B, Second Floor, Pusa Road, Karol Bagh, New Delhi - 110005 (Beside Karol Bagh Metro Station Gate No. 8)

Get directions on Google Maps

BHUBANESWAR (Jaydev Vihar)

GS SCORE, Plot No.2298, Jaydev Vihar Square, Near HCG Day Care, BBSR - 751013

Get directions on Google Maps

LUCKNOW (Aliganj)

GS SCORE, 2nd Floor, B-33, Sangam Chauraha, Sector H, Aliganj, Lucknow, UP - 226024

Get directions on Google Maps

Enquire Now