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Centre and the Manipur government sign peace pact with Naga armed group

  • Published
    28th Dec, 2022

The Union government and the Manipur government have signed a cessation of operations agreement with the Zeliangrong United Front (ZUF), a Manipur-based Naga armed group.


  • The banned group, active for a decade, has been demanding a separate State for the Zeliangrong Naga tribe.
  • The armed group are the followers of Rani Gaidinliu, freedom fighter from Manipur, who was jailed by the British for 14 years.

Rani Gaidinliu:

  • Rani Gaidinliu was a Naga spiritual leader.
  • Gaidinliu belonged to the Rongmei clan of the Zeliangrong tribe in the Tamenglong district of western Manipur.
  • Rani Gandiliu’s association with Jadonang (then king) who prepared her to fight the British.
  • After the execution of Jadonang, she took up the leadership of the movement — which slowly turned political from religious.
  • Rani started a serious revolt against the British and was eventually imprisoned for life. She was released after 14 years, in 1947.

About the peace pact:

  • Signed by: The senior officers of the Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of Manipur and the representatives of the ZUF in the presence of Chief Minister of Manipur, N. Biren Singh.
  • Points agreed:
    • Representatives of the armed group agreed to abjure violence and join the peaceful democratic process as established by the law.
    • The agreement provides for rehabilitation and resettlement of the armed cadres. A Joint Monitoring Group will be constituted to oversee enforcement of the agreed ground rules.
  • Significance:
    • The agreement would be a significant boost to the peace process in Manipur.

Other armed groups of Naga-origin:

  • The 2015 agreement was signed between the Centre and the Naga groups led by National Socialist Council of Nagaland-Isak-Muivah (NSCN-IM) after the latter agreed to give up its long-standing demand for sovereignty.
  • There was a broad understanding on a settlement within the Indian constitutional framework, with due regard to the uniqueness of Naga history and tradition.

NSCN and its Demands:

  • Creation:Maoist guerrilla leaders Isak Chisi Swu, Thuingaleng Muivah and S S Khaplang had created the NSCN in 1980 to oppose the decision of the Naga National Council (NNC) to accept the Indian Constitution — the 1975 Shillong Accord was signed by Angami Zapu Phizo-led NNC.
  • After differences between the top leaders, the group split into the NSCN-IM and the NSCN-K, which have been accusing each other of undermining Naga interests
  • After Phizo’s death in 1991, the NSCN-IM came to be recognised as the dominant voice of Naga assertion.
  • In 1997, the NSCN-IM agreed to a ceasefire which led to the start of almost two decades of peace talks with the Indian government.
  • Greater Nagalim:In the NSCN-IM’s scheme of things, “Greater Nagalim” consists of present Nagaland and all contiguous Naga-inhabited areas, which includes many districts of Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Manipur, and most interestingly, a part of neighbouring Myanmar.
  • While the area of Nagaland is approximately 16,500 sq km, the geographical spread of “Greater Nagalim” is sprawled over 1,20,000 sq. km, evoking apprehensions and resentment among people of Assam, Manipur and Arunachal due to threat to the territorial integrity of their states.

Issues faced by people due to insurgent group in Nagaland:

  • Extortionby insurgent groups has been a way of life for people living in India’s north-eastern states, particularly in Nagaland.
  • It is an open secret that all separatist outfits run their own parallel governments and collect extortion money — sometimes more than 20 per cent of the annual income — from individuals, businesses, government departments and employees.
  • While non-Nagas are heavily taxed, the Nagas themselves are not spared.
  • Payment of this so-called “tax” to armed Naga groups is the only way to ensure safety. 


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