What's New :
ITS 2025: Integrated Test Series & Mentorship Program for Prelims and Mains. Get Details
12th April 2024 (9 Topics)

12th April 2024

QUIZ - 12th April 2024

5 Questions

5 Minutes


India's economic trajectory for the upcoming years is under the spotlight with the Asian Development Bank (ADB) projecting a growth rate of 7% for the fiscal year 2024-25. Despite a slight slowdown from the previous year's 7.6%, the ADB maintains a positive outlook on India's economic performance.

Key Highlights of the Report

  • Growth Forecast: ADB predicts India's GDP growth to reach 7.2% in 2025-26, indicating a steady upward trend over the medium term.
  • Inflation Outlook: Retail inflation is expected to ease to 4.6% in the current fiscal year, further dropping to 4.5% in 2025-26.
  • Persistent Food Inflation: The report notes that India's persistent food inflation is likely to decrease to 5.7% as farm output returns to normal levels, aligning with historical trends.
  • Impact of Global Factors: The resurgence of inflation in the United States and the possibility of prolonged higher interest rates could impact Asia's inflation outlook, particularly affecting India due to its sensitivity to exchange rate fluctuations and reliance on imported goods.
  • Monsoon Factor: A projected normal monsoon is expected to boost rural consumption, which suffered from erratic rainfall last year. Increased demand for work under schemes like the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act is anticipated, signaling a potential revival in rural economies.
1: Dimension- Economic Growth Trends
  • Investment in Infrastructure: The government's emphasis on infrastructure development, including projects in transportation, energy, and digital connectivity, is expected to stimulate investment and drive economic growth.
  • Export Promotion Strategies: Initiatives aimed at boosting exports, such as the Production-Linked Incentive (PLI) scheme and trade facilitation measures, are likely to enhance India's competitiveness in global markets and contribute to economic expansion.
  • Regional Disparities: Addressing regional disparities in economic development through targeted policies and investments will be crucial to ensure inclusive growth and equitable distribution of benefits across different states and regions.
2: Dimension- Inflation Dynamics
  • Supply Chain Resilience: Enhancing supply chain resilience through reforms in logistics, warehousing, and distribution networks can help mitigate inflationary pressures arising from disruptions in commodity markets and transportation systems.
  • Monetary Policy Tools: The central bank's monetary policy toolkit, including interest rate adjustments and liquidity management measures, will play a pivotal role in stabilizing inflation expectations and supporting economic recovery amidst evolving global economic conditions.
  • Commodity Price Volatility: Monitoring and managing volatility in global commodity prices, particularly for essential commodities like crude oil and food grains, are essential to prevent cost-push inflation and ensure macroeconomic stability.
3: Dimension- Impact of Global Factors
  • Trade Policy Reforms: Pursuing trade policy reforms, including bilateral and multilateral trade agreements, can facilitate market access for Indian exporters and attract foreign investment, thereby stimulating economic growth and job creation.
  • Global Financial Market Developments: Monitoring developments in global financial markets, including capital flows, exchange rate movements, and investor sentiment, will be crucial to mitigate risks associated with external volatility and maintain financial stability.
  • Climate Change and Sustainability: Integrating climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies into economic planning and development policies can enhance resilience to environmental risks and foster sustainable growth in the long run.

Mains Practice Question

  1. Examine the factors projected to influence India's GDP growth and the measures to alleviate inflationary tendencies for the fiscal year 2024-25, taking into account domestic and global economic conditions."

Asian Development Bank (ADB):

  • ADB (founded in 1966) is an international development finance institution.
  • Its mission is to help its developing member countries reduce poverty and improve the quality of life of their people.
  • Headquartered in Manila, ADB is owned and financed by its 68 members, of which 49 are from the region and 19 are from other parts of the globe.
  • The two largest shareholders of the Asian Development Bank are the United States and Japan.
  • ADB is an official United Nations Observer.
  • Voting rights in ADB are distributed in proportion with members’ capital subscriptions.


The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has achieved a significant milestone by practically eliminating orbital debris in Earth's orbit through its PSLV-C58/XPoSat mission. This accomplishment marks a crucial step towards mitigating the growing threat of space debris.

Key Highlights

Transformation of Fourth Stage:

  • POEM-3 Development: The last stage of the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) used in the mission was transformed into the PSLV Orbital Experimental Module-3 (POEM-3), serving as an orbital station.
  • De-Orbiting Strategy: Instead of leaving the fourth stage to float in orbit after completing its mission, ISRO lowered POEM-3 from 650 km to 350 km, rendering it more susceptible to re-entry into the Earth's atmosphere.
  • Passivation Measures: ISRO ensured the safe disposal of the stage by passivating it, meaning that its fuel was dumped to prevent the risk of explosion and the generation of small debris fragments.

Significance of POEM:

  • Cost-effective Space Platform: Developed by the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC), POEM utilizes the spent fourth stage of a PSLV rocket as an orbital platform, facilitating scientific experiments and payload operations.
  • Innovative Technology: Equipped with solar panels, a lithium-ion battery, and a navigation, guidance, and control (NGC) system, POEM represents a sustainable and resource-efficient approach to space exploration.
  • Demonstration of Reusability: ISRO's successful demonstration of reusing the fourth stage of its rocket highlights its commitment to innovation and cost-effectiveness in space missions.

Addressing Space Debris Concerns:

  • Rising Threat of Space Debris: With the proliferation of satellites and space missions, space debris has emerged as a critical concern, posing risks to operational spacecraft and future missions.
  • Environmental Impact: Space debris, including defunct satellites and fragments of spacecraft, travels at high speeds and can cause collisions, potentially leading to cascading effects and further debris generation.
  • International Mitigation Efforts: While there are currently no international space laws specifically addressing low Earth orbit (LEO) debris, spacefaring nations adhere to guidelines set forth by organizations like the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC) to mitigate debris-related risks.

1: Dimension-Technological Advancements

  • Space Debris Mitigation Technologies: ISRO's innovative approach to space debris mitigation underscores the importance of technological advancements in addressing space sustainability challenges.
  • Reusable Space Platforms: POEM exemplifies the potential of reusing space hardware components to minimize waste and optimize resource utilization in space missions.
  • Future Prospects: Continued investments in research and development of space technologies will be essential to enhance space situational awareness and develop effective debris mitigation strategies.

2: Dimension-Environmental Conservation

  • Preserving Space Environment: Eliminating orbital debris contributes to preserving the space environment and ensuring the long-term sustainability of space activities.
  • Mitigating Risks: By actively addressing the risks associated with space debris, space agencies play a crucial role in safeguarding critical space assets and reducing the likelihood of collisions.
  • Global Cooperation: Collaboration among nations and international organizations is essential to develop comprehensive space debris mitigation frameworks and promote responsible space conduct.

3: Dimension-Policy and Governance

  • Regulatory Frameworks: The absence of comprehensive international space laws necessitates the development of robust regulatory frameworks to govern space activities and address emerging challenges like space debris.
  • Standardization and Compliance: Standardization of space debris mitigation practices and mechanisms for compliance monitoring are crucial for ensuring the effectiveness of mitigation efforts and promoting responsible space behavior.
  • Diplomatic Initiatives: Diplomatic dialogues and multilateral agreements play a vital role in fostering cooperation and consensus-building on space governance issues, including debris mitigation and space sustainability.

Mains Practice Question

Q. Discuss the challenges and opportunities in addressing space debris concerns for sustainable space exploration.


India's manufacturing sector plays a crucial role in sustaining economic growth and achieving export targets. The Asian Development Bank (ADB) highlights the need for India to streamline its tariff policy and enhance trade competitiveness to integrate more effectively into global value chains (GVCs).

1: Dimension-Tariff Policy Simplification
  • Rationale: India's growth strategy relies on increasing exports through integration into GVCs, necessitating a simplified tariff policy to reduce trade barriers and enhance transparency.
  • Policy Reforms: Measures such as rationalizing tariff rates, reducing procedural complexities, and harmonizing trade regulations are essential for creating a conducive business environment for manufacturers.
  • Impact Assessment: A simplified tariff policy promotes cost efficiency, enhances market access, and bolsters India's competitiveness in global trade, leading to increased exports and economic prosperity.
2: Dimension-Enhancing Trade Competitiveness
  • Infrastructure Development: Investing in trade-related infrastructure, including ports, transportation networks, and customs facilities, is critical for reducing transaction costs and facilitating seamless trade flows.
  • Trade Facilitation Measures: Implementing trade facilitation measures, such as single-window clearances, customs modernization, and digital trade platforms, enhances the efficiency and reliability of trade processes.
  • Capacity Building: Strengthening institutional capacity for trade promotion and export development empowers businesses to navigate international markets effectively and capitalize on emerging opportunities.
3: Dimension-Integration into Global Value Chains
  • Specialization Strategies: India must identify and leverage its comparative advantages in specific stages of production within GVCs to maximize its participation and value addition in global trade networks.
  • Sectoral Focus: Prioritizing sectors with high export potential, such as automotive, electronics, and pharmaceuticals, facilitates targeted interventions to enhance competitiveness and foster sectoral growth.
  • International Cooperation: Engaging in regional and bilateral trade agreements, participating in trade promotion initiatives, and strengthening economic ties with key trading partners enhance India's access to GVCs and promote sustainable trade expansion.

Mains Practice Question

Q: "Discuss the significance of simplifying India's tariff policy and enhancing trade competitiveness to boost manufacturing growth.


BJP state president has raised the demand to rename Sultan Bathery, a town in Wayanad to ‘Ganapathivattom'.


  • Sulthan Bathery is one of the three municipal towns in Wayanad and is home to a Ganapati temple once known as Ganapathyvattam.
  • The town got its name after Tipu Sultan invaded the Malabar region in the second half of 1700.
  • The Mysuru ruler’s military used Ganapathyvattam as a battery for their ammunition and the town became known as ‘Sultan’s Battery’ in British records.


Chital was introduced in Ross islands of Andamans for hunting however it has become an invasive species.


  • It is also known as the spotted deer, chital deer and axis deer, is a deer species native to the Indian subcontinent.
  • It is the most common deer species in Indian forests.
  • Habitat: Subtropical grasslands and forests.
  • Distribution: It is widely distributed in Asia, especially in India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Bhutan, and a small group in Pakistan.
  • They prefer open grasslands, savannahs, and lightly forested areas.
  • IUCN Red list: Least Concern





Soft State

  • A soft state is a state that has a lenient attitude towards social deviance.
  • Soft states avoid making difficult decisions, even when the situation demands it.
  • This policy weakens the state's ability to enforce the rule of law.
  • It is introduced by Gunnar Myrdal in his Asian Drama to describe a general societal “indiscipline” prevalent in Asia and by extension much of the developing world.


Invasive species

  • An invasive species is a non-native organism that harms its new environment.
  • Invasive species can be plants, insects, fish, fungi, bacteria, or even seeds or eggs.
  • They can harm the environment, the economy, or even human health.


Base Erosion and Profit Sharing (BEPS)

Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) refers to the strategies used by multinational companies to avoid paying tax, by exploiting the mismatches and gaps in the tax rules.


Principal Purpose Test

The PPT lays out the condition that the tax benefits under the treaty will not be applicable if it is established that obtaining that duty benefit was the principal purpose of any transaction or arrangement.


Kessler Syndrome

The Kessler Syndrome is a phenomenon in which the amount of junk in orbit around Earth reaches a point where it just creates more and more space debris, causing big problems for satellites, astronauts and mission planners.



NexCAR19 is India's first CAR T-cell therapy, developed by the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Bombay and the Tata Memorial Centre. It's designed to target cancer cells that have the CD19 protein, which is a marker on cancer cells. NexCAR19 is approved for patients 15 and older with B-cell lymphomas that don't respond to standard treatments, leading to relapse or recurrence.


Adjudicating Authority (PMLA)

  • In terms of sub-section (1) of section 6 of Preventions of Money Laundering Act, 2002, an Adjudicating Authority under PMLA has been constituted to exercise jurisdiction, powers and authority conferred by or under the said Act.
  • The Authority comprises three Members, one each from the fields of ‘Law’, ‘Administration’ and ‘Finance or accountancy’. Further, one of the Members is appointed as Chairperson of the Adjudicating Authority.
  • Where the Adjudicating Authority decides that any property is involved in money-laundering, Adjudicating Authority shall, by an order in writing confirm the attachment of the property made or retention of property or record seized


In the run-up to elections, the intersection of domestic politics with foreign policy decisions can have significant repercussions on bilateral relationships. Recent statements by Indian leaders regarding past agreements and policies have highlighted the potential risks of politicizing foreign relations for electoral gains.

Perils of Politicizing Bilateral Ties:

  • Criticism of Past Agreements: Statements by Prime Minister Narendra Modi and External Affairs Minister S. Jaishankar questioning the 1974 India-Sri Lanka agreement have stirred controversy. The critique of past decisions, aimed at influencing voter sentiment, risks straining diplomatic relations with Sri Lanka.
  • Repercussions on International Agreements: The implications of reopening longstanding agreements extend beyond bilateral relations. Questions arise about India's credibility as an interlocutor and the potential impact on existing and future international agreements, such as the maritime boundary settlement with Bangladesh.
  • Domestic Policies and Transnational Relations: The implementation of domestic laws, such as the Citizenship (Amendment) Act (CAA), can affect relations with neighboring countries. The exclusionary nature of the CAA raises concerns among neighboring nations and has the potential to strain diplomatic ties, particularly with Bangladesh.

Maintaining Discretion in Diplomacy:

  • Discreet Resolution of Issues: Complex foreign policy issues require nuanced and discreet negotiations, away from the public glare of election campaigns. Public statements during elections risk exacerbating tensions and undermining diplomatic efforts.
  • Sensitivity to Neighboring Concerns: India must recognize the sensitivities of immediate neighbors, especially regarding territorial and sovereignty issues. Cartographic disputes and historical grievances can escalate during election seasons, necessitating careful diplomatic navigation.
  • Long-term Consequences: While election cycles are temporary, the fallout from politicizing foreign policy can have enduring consequences. Sacrificing bilateral ties for short-term electoral gains may undermine India's strategic interests and regional stability in the long run.
You must be logged in to get greater insights.


Climate activist Sonam Wangchuk's call for a 21-day climate fast in Ladakh highlights the urgent need to address the environmental challenges facing the region and their global implications.

Environmental Threats in Ladakh:

  • Impact of Climate Change: Ladakh, situated between Pakistan and China, faces multiple environmental threats, including floods, droughts, landslides, and greenhouse gas emissions. The melting of Himalayan glaciers, crucial for regional hydrology, poses risks to both local communities and downstream populations.
  • Infrastructure Boom: Despite initiatives like the National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem (NMSHE), rapid infrastructure development in Ladakh, including roads, tunnels, and solar projects, has raised concerns about its environmental sustainability. The emphasis on industrialization and tourism promotion neglects environmental safeguards.
  • History of Disasters: The Himalayan region has witnessed several disasters in recent years, such as the 2013 Kedarnath flash floods and the 2023 Joshimath incident. Despite warnings from experts, infrastructure projects continue without adequate risk assessment, endangering lives and exacerbating environmental degradation.

Addressing Environmental Challenges:

  • Policy Reforms: There is a need for stringent environmental regulations and comprehensive impact assessments for infrastructure projects in mountainous regions. Policies should prioritize sustainability over short-term development goals.
  • Public Awareness: Increasing awareness among policymakers and the public about the ecological fragility of mountain ecosystems is crucial. Engaging local communities and environmental activists in decision-making processes can foster sustainable development practices.
  • International Cooperation: Given the transboundary nature of climate change, international cooperation is essential for mitigating its impacts. Collaborative efforts among Himalayan countries can facilitate knowledge sharing, resource management, and climate resilience building.
You must be logged in to get greater insights.


The Supreme Court's recent decision to set aside its own judgment in the DMRC case sheds light on the balance between finality in litigation and the pursuit of substantive justice, emphasizing the Court's curative jurisdiction.

Curative Jurisdiction and Litigation Finality:

  • Case Background: The dispute between Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) and Delhi Airport Metro Express Private Ltd. (DAMEPL) arose from a termination clause in their agreement. Despite initial arbitration rulings in favor of DAMEPL, subsequent legal proceedings led to contradictory judgments.
  • Significance of Curative Petition: The curative petition, an extraordinary legal remedy, allows the Supreme Court to review its own judgments to prevent gross miscarriages of justice. It highlights the Court's commitment to ensuring substantive justice even after the exhaustion of regular legal avenues.
  • Balancing Finality and Justice: While litigation finality is essential for legal certainty, the DMRC case underscores the importance of correcting legal errors to uphold justice. The decision emphasizes the need for arbitrators and judges to meticulously consider both factual and legal aspects to prevent undue hardships for litigants.

Implications for Judicial Processes:

  • Strengthening Arbitration Mechanisms: The DMRC case highlights the significance of arbitration in commercial disputes and the need for efficient resolution mechanisms. Ensuring fair and timely arbitration processes can enhance confidence in alternative dispute resolution methods.
  • Upholding Judicial Integrity: The Supreme Court's exercise of curative jurisdiction reaffirms its commitment to upholding judicial integrity and correcting miscarriages of justice. It underscores the judiciary's role in safeguarding the rule of law and ensuring access to justice for all.
  • Promoting Legal Certainty: While the DMRC case demonstrates the flexibility of legal processes to address exceptional circumstances, efforts should be made to streamline legal procedures and minimize prolonged litigation. Enhancing legal certainty benefits both litigants and the judicial system.
You must be logged in to get greater insights.

Verifying, please be patient.

Enquire Now