What's New :
GS Mains Classes 2024, Morning Batch Starts: 12th June & Evening Batch Starts: 15th June

15th May 2023

Non-tribals have right to settle in Scheduled Area: SC


Noting that every citizen has a right to reside in any part of India subject to “reasonable restrictions”, the Supreme Court has ruled that even persons who are not tribesmen have the right to settle down and exercise the right to vote in a Scheduled Area under the Fifth Schedule of the Constitution.

  • A petition was filed in the Supreme Court in which the petitioner had contended
    • Right to settle: no one had the right to settle in the Scheduled Area, except for the members of the Scheduled Tribes
    • Right to vote: every person, who didn’t belong to Scheduled Tribes and residing in the Scheduled Area, was an unlawful occupant and, therefore, was disentitled to exercise his right to vote in a Scheduled Area constituency.=

The key conclusion made by the Supreme Court

  • Even though the Fifth Schedule is a law, it does not put any constraints on the exercise of the fundamental rights under Article 19(1) of the Constitution.

Reasonable Restriction

  • Under sub-clause (e) of Clause (1) of Article 19 of the Constitution, every citizen has a right to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India.
  • However, by making a law, reasonable restrictions can be put on the said fundamental right as provided in Clause (5) of the Article.
  • Power of Governor: The power of the Governor under Clause 5 of the Fifth Schedule is restricted to directing that a particular law will not apply to the Scheduled Area or it will apply with such modifications as may be specified in the notification issued under Clause 5(1) of the Fifth Schedule or while making Regulations in terms of Clause 5(2) of the Fifth Schedule.
    • The power of the Governor under Clause 5 of the Fifth Schedule does not supersede the Fundamental Rights under Part III of the Constitution of India
  • Fundamental Rights conferred by Article 19(1)(e) of the Constitution [all citizens have the right to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India] on the citizens can also be exercised in relation to the Scheduled Area.
  • Under sub-clause (e) of Clause (1) of Article 19 of the Constitution, every citizen has a right to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India.
  • However, by making a law, reasonable restrictions can be put on the said fundamental right as provided in Clause (5) of the Article.
  • Right to vote: As far as the right to vote is concerned, the 1950 Act applies to the Scheduled Area. Therefore, the appellant cannot contend that only a person belonging to the Scheduled Tribes can cast a vote in elections of the constituencies in the Scheduled Area.

What are the Fifth Schedule Areas?

The Fifth Schedule designates tribal majority areas spread across ten tribal minority states including

  • Andhra Pradesh
  • Telangana
  • Gujarat
  • Jharkhand
  • Chhattisgarh
  • Himachal Pradesh
  • Madhya Pradesh
  • Maharashtra
  • Odisha
  • Rajasthan
  • The Fifth Schedule of the Indian Constitution pertains to the administration and control of Scheduled Areas in India.
  • Tribal communities primarily inhabit the Fifth Scheduled Areas, and the provisions under this Schedule aim to protect their rights and promote their welfare.
  • In these areas, special provisions have been made for the governance and development of tribal communities, such as the
    • establishment of Tribal Advisory Councils
    • prohibition of transfer of land from tribals to non-tribals
    • regulation of land acquisition
    • protection of tribal rights
  • The Fifth Schedule also provides for appointing a Governor's representative to oversee the administration of the Scheduled Areas.

Mitochondrial Donation Treatment


In a groundbreaking In vitro fertilization (IVF) procedure, a baby made with DNA from three people has been born in the UK. The new medical miracle is aimed at preventing children from inheriting incurable mitochondrial diseases.

How do defects occur in Mitochondria?

  • Mitochondria are basically the powerhouses of the cells. They generate energy, and thus are also responsible for cell function in the human body.
  • They have their own DNA, which is separate from the DNA in the cell's nucleus, and mutations in mitochondrial DNA can lead to a range of serious health conditions.
  • Certain defects might occur impacting the way the mitochondria produce energy for the cells (especially in the ‘energy-hungry’ tissues of the brain, nerves, muscles, kidneys, heart, liver), and thereby impacting cell function.
  • The diseases that arise out of such mitochondrial mutations are called mitochondrial diseases.
  • Mitochondrial diseases are only passed on by the mother
  • Some estimates put the incidence of mitochondrial diseases as one in 5,000 people.
  • Impact: When the mitochondria are impaired and do not produce sufficient energy, it affects how organs function, leading to a broad assortment of symptoms across the body, including brain damage, organ failure and muscle wastage.

What is Mitochondrial Replacement Therapy (MRT)?

  • MRT is a medical procedure that can replace faulty mitochondria with healthy ones in the cells of an embryo.
  • The process of MRT involves transferring the nuclear DNA from the egg or embryo of an affected woman into an egg or embryo from a donor with healthy mitochondria.
  • The resulting embryo will contain nuclear DNA from the biological parents and mitochondrial DNA from the donor, aiming to prevent the transmission of mitochondrial disease to future generations while maintaining the biological relationship between the parents and their child.

Study pegs age of Saturn's rings at 400 million years old


Researchers have pegged the planet Saturn's rings' age at no more than 400 million years old, potentially answering a question that has boggled scientists for well over a century.

Key Highlights of the New Study

  • It has delivered the strongest evidence yet that Saturn's rings are remarkably young, much younger than Saturn itself, which is about 4.5 billion years old.
  • The findings shed light on the formation and evolution of Saturn's ring system, providing valuable insights into the dynamic processes that shape planetary systems

About the Planet

  • Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest planet in the solar system.
  • Like fellow gas giant Jupiter, Saturn is a massive ball made mostly of hydrogen and helium.
  • Saturn is not the only planet to have rings, but none are as spectacular or as complex as Saturn's. Saturn also has dozens of moons.
  • Current and Past Missions
    • Cassini - NASA/ESA Mission to Saturn
    • Huygens - NASA/ESA Mission to Saturn's satellite Titan
    • Voyager 1 - NASA Mission to Jupiter and Saturn
    • Voyager 2 - NASA Mission to Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and beyond
    • Pioneer 11 - NASA Saturn flyby (1979)

ISRO successfully starts testing its semi-cryogenic engine


The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has successfully begun testing of its semi-cryogenic engine that will power future launch vehicles. 


  • ISRO has initiated the series of tests required for qualifying and validating its most-powerful liquid-fuelled engine yet, one that is powered by especially refined kerosene (dubbed as 'ISROsene') and super-cooled liquid oxygen.
  • Once ready, this 2000kN Semicryogenic Engine and its stage (associated components, fuel tanks etc.) will be replacing the current L110 (core stage) of India's largest rocket - Launch Vehicle Mark 3(LVM3).
  • This is meant to significantly add to the lifting power of the LVM3 rocket. 

Why ISRO is focusing on Semi-Cryogenic Engine?

  • The semi-cryogenic engine is an advancement in rocket technology over the cryogenic engine, which ISRO currently uses for the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) which can carry up to 4 tonnes of payload into higher earth orbit.
  • For increased payload, a cryogenic engine would not be enough and hence the development of semi-cryogenic engines is a key stage in India’s space programme.
  • Disadvantages posed by cryogenic engines:
    • The use of liquid hydrogen at extremely low temperatures is very difficult to store being the smallest gas
    • The cost of using liquid hydrogen is a prohibitive
  • Benefits of Semi-Cryogenic Engine:
    • Better fuel: A semi-cryogenic engine uses refined kerosene instead of liquid hydrogen. It uses liquid oxygen as an oxidiser.
      • Kerosene is much lighter than liquid fuel and can be stored at a normal temperature. The Kerosene combined with liquid oxygen provides more thrust to the rocket. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) can also be used as fuel.
    • Less space: It also occupies less space which makes it possible to have more propellant in the fuel compartment or tank.
    • It is more environment-friendly, cost-effective and more powerful compared to a cryogenic engine. It can carry a huge weight to a higher altitude. Moreover, the payload can be increased since the weight of the fuel will come down by 500kg.

Global Financial Innovation Network (GFIN)


The Reserve Bank of India has opened the application window for all India-based firms and innovators to participate in Global Financial Innovation Network (GFIN)’s first-ever Greenwashing TechSprint.


  • RBI will be among the 13 international regulators taking part in GFIN’s Greenwashing TechSprint.
  • The TechSprint will bring together 13 international regulators alongside firms and innovators to address GFIN’s priority on environmental, social and governance (ESG) and sustainable finance.

Global Financial Innovation Network (GFIN)

  • Launched in: 2019
  • The Global Financial Innovation Network (GFIN) is a network of over 70 organisations committed to supporting financial innovation in the interests of consumers.
  • It seeks to provide a more efficient way for innovative firms to interact with regulators, helping them navigate between countries as they look to scale new ideas.
  • This includes the ability to apply to join a pilot for firms wishing to test innovative products, services or business models across more than one jurisdiction.
  • The GFIN also aims to create a new framework for cooperation between financial services regulators on innovation-related topics, sharing different experiences and approaches.

Short News Article

Polity & Governance

Biggest legal library in Asia


Supreme Court judges library which began functioning in 1937 from the modest Princess chamber of the old Parliament House has since made colossal strides and now stand as the biggest legal library in Asia.

  • Supreme Court Judges Library is a “Reference and Research” wing of the apex Court. 
  • The library acts like a 24x7 hotline for the judges of the top court so that any research which is sought is provided instantly along with books.


Gharial seen in Pakistan’s Punjab

A gharial (Gavialis gangeticus) has been seen in Pakistan’s Punjab province for the first time after three decades. 

  • The gharial (Gavialis gangeticus), also known as the gavial, and fish-eating crocodile is a crocodilian in the family Gavialidae, native to sandy freshwater river banks in the plains of the northern part of the Indian subcontinent.
  • Gharials are critically endangered in the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List of Species. The species is also listed under Schedule I of the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972.
  • Chambal River in National Chambal Sanctuary is the natural habitat of gharial.


This strategic-economic bloc will only tighten the leash


India walked out from the RCEP and now India along with many of the same countries is getting into Indo-Pacific Economic Framework for Prosperity(IPEF)

The Devil and deep sea

  • Issues with China: Its relationship with China has deteriorated. The biggest fear of china was the impact of any trade deal on India’s manufacturing sector.
  • Issues with US: The economic issues with the U.S. have been problematic too, e.g. regarding agriculture, intellectual property, labour and environment standards, and the digital economy. 
  • S. self-interest-driven economic framework: Strategic partnership with the U.S. should not mean accepting a completely U.S. self-interest-driven economic framework that does not suit India’s current economic interests.

Issues with IPEF

  • Tariff eliminations: U.S.’s IPEF proposal completely removes the tariff element of typical trade deals, and is entirely about all these other areas. 
  • Little leeway for domestic policies: The systemic integration caused by the IPEF’s actual long-term impact will leave little leeway for domestic policies to help a country’s own industrialisation.
  • Trapping countries: The high-level language of IPEF will unsuspectingly trap countries in economy-wide permanent commitments, with domestic policy-making space considerably compromised.
You must be logged in to get greater insights.


QUIZ - 15th May 2023
GS Classes 2024 Optional Foundation Optional Q&A mains test series 2023 mains classes 2023 UPSC Study Material

Verifying, please be patient.

Enquire Now