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1st December 2022 (5 Topics)

1st December 2022

QUIZ - 1st December 2022

5 Questions

5 Minutes

Mains Question:

Question: Explain how the Mauna Loa volcanic eruption is unique in its origin and structure. Also discuss how it is different from most of the volcanoes of the world?

Question Mapping

  • Subject: Geography (GS-I)
    • Sub-topic: Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc.
  • Introduce with the recent Mauna Loa volcanic eruption in Hawaii.
  • Now with the help of a diagram explain the type, structure, and reason for volcanic eruptions.
  • Bring out the differences in the Hawaiian and other most volcanoes of the world.
  • Conclude with the human response to volcanic eruption and its management.



Both Global Hunger Index 2021 and National Family Health Survey-5 highlight the glaring issue of malnutrition among the Indian population. Food fortification could be a proven cost-effective solution.

The rice program and anemia

  • Targeted Public Distribution program: Pilot projects on the distribution of fortified rice have been taken up in selected States. Rice and wheat are fortified with iron, folic acid & vitamin B12.
  • Scaling up of the distribution of fortified rice: The success of the program has prompted the central government to scale it up through social safety nets such as the PDS, ICDS, and PM-POSHAN.
  • Results in line with Global Programmes: Experiences from the different States tally with the results of global programs that use fortified food as a cost-effective strategy.

Noon meal scheme in Gujarat

  • A Study on Midday Meal Scheme: In Gujarat, a study on fortified rice intervention for schoolchildren, has resulted in increased hemoglobin & 10% reduction in anemia prevalence.
  • Iron deficiency anemia: According to the World Health Organization (WHO), it is responsible for a loss of 47 million DALYs (years of life lost due to premature mortality and years lived with disability).
  • WHO meta-analysis: In India, the cost of one DALY lost due to iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is approximately Rs30,000, while the cost of averting an IDA-related DALY is only Rs1,545, resulting in a cost-benefit ratio of 1:18.
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