What's New :

27th January 2023

ONGC to map India’s geothermal resources


The Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) plans to map the geothermal energy sources of India in search of clean energy.

What is Geothermal Energy?

  • Geothermal energy is heat that is generated within the Earth. 
  • Geothermal energy is stored in the form of heat beneath the earth’s surface 
  • Type: Renewable resource 
  • Source: It is contained in the rocks and fluids beneath the earth’s crust and can be found as far down as the earth’s hot molten rock, magma.
  • Impact on environment: clean and carbon-free.
  • Process: A series of wells is used to generate steam from the Earth’s internal heat energy and fed to the power plant to generate electricity

Geothermal Energy in India

  • Geothermal province: There are seven geothermal provinces and a number of geothermal springs in India.
  • Total potential: According to the ministry of new and renewable energy, India has the potential to generate 10 gigawatts (GW) of geothermal power.
  • Major regions: Ladakh (Puga and Chumathang regions) has been identified as the most resource-rich region in terms of geothermal energy in the country.
    • Apart from Ladakh, there is abundant potential in Himachal Pradesh too which has several sources of geothermal energy along the rivers Alaknanda, Sutlej, Beas and Bhagirathi.
    • Efforts are also underway to utilize geothermal energy from oil and gas wells in the Gandhar oil field of ONGC’s Ankleshwar asset in Gujarat.

India’s Top Renewable Energy Projects

  • Puga Geothermal Energy Project, Ladakh
  • Bhadla Solar Park, Rajasthan
  • Jaisalmer Wind Park, Jaisalmer
  • Rewa Solar Project, Madhya Pradesh
  • Brahmanvel Wind Farm, Maharashtra
  • Gobar?Dhan Bio?CNG Plant, Indore
  • Vankusawade Wind Park, Maharashtra
  • Ramky Enviro Landfill, Gas to Bio?CNG Plant, Hyderabad
  • Shakti Sthala Solar Project, Karnataka
  • Simhadri Floating Solar PV Plant, Andhra Pradesh
  • Kurnool Ultra Mega Solar Park, Andhra Pradesh
  • Pavagada Solar Park, Karnataka
  • Muppandal Wind Farm, Tamil Nadu

About Maharatna ONGC

  • The Oil and Natural Gas Corporation is a central public sector undertaking under the ownership of the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas, Government of India. 
  • Headquarters: Dehradun 
  • Founded in: 1956
  • ONGC is the largest crude oil and natural gas Company in India.

UNDP India launches campaign to drive inclusive circular economy


The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) launched a campaign to drive an inclusive circular economy as part of its initiative to promote sustainability. 

About the initiative
  • Project title: “Inclusive Circular Economy” 
  • Partners: United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and Hindustan Unilever Limited (HUL) 
  • The project is a scale-up of existing partnerships under UNDP's flagship Plastic Waste Management Programme.
  • Aim: The initiative focuses on the end-to-end management of plastic waste by 
    • promoting the segregation of waste at the source
    • collection of the segregated waste
    • setting up Material Recovery Facilities (MRFs) for recycling all kinds of plastic waste along the value chain
    • support the social inclusion of 20,000 waste-pickers across the country

The partnership is the first-of-its-kind attempt to promote the social inclusion of Safai Saathis at this scale in India.

  • Adoption of management models: The partnership with Hindustan Unilever Limited (HUL) will also help build the capacities of Urban Local Bodies for adopting the MRFs or Swachhata Kendra model for plastic and dry waste management in other cities.

UNDP's flagship Plastic Waste Management Programme.

  • The project has successfully linked 3,300 Safai Saathis and their families to government welfare schemes, including Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana, Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana, SHRAM card, and Jan Dhan account.

The rationale for taxing agricultural income


The issue of taxing farm income seems to arise regularly, particularly before the annual budget is presented.

Agricultural Income and Taxation
  • In India, the income from agriculture is not taxed.
  • As per section 10(1), agricultural income earned by the taxpayer in India is exempt from tax. Agricultural income is defined under section 2(1A) of the Income-tax Act.
  • The agriculture and allied sector have contributed only to 18 per cent of GDP, where about 45 per cent of the population are employed. 
Need to tax Agricultural Income
  • There are concerns that wealthy individuals and corporations evade tax by reporting their income as tax-exempt agricultural income.
  • As the income from agriculture is not taxed, irrespective of the level of income, unaccounted money is shown as agricultural income by vested interests. 
  • Cases of nurseries, seed companies, and contract farming companies claim an exemption for income earned from such activities. 
Government-appointed committees that recommended taxing agricultural income
  • Report of the Taxation Enquiry Commission (1953–54)
  • Raj Committee on Taxation of Agricultural Wealth and Income (1972)
  • Fourth Five-Year Plan (1969–74)
  • Report of Fifth Finance Commission (1969)
  • Tax Reforms Committee (1991)
  • Kelkar Task Force on Direct Taxes (2002)
  • White Paper on Black Money (2012) 
  • Tax Administration Reform Commission (2014)

Farmers in many states pay some income tax. States such as Assam, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Maharashtra, Odisha, Uttar Pradesh, and West Bengal have an agricultural income tax, although it is payable only for certain crops and activities.

Country’s indigenous mobile operating system BharOS


The Ministry for Communications, Electronics and Information Technology tested 'BharOS', the recently-unveiled indigenous operating system developed by the Indian Institute of Technology, Madras (IIT).  

What is BharOS?
  • BharOS is India’s first homegrown mobile operating system.
  • It is Linux kernel-based operating system that is designed to be secure and powerful. 
  • Developed by: The BharOS was developed by JandK Operations Private Limited (JandKops), which has been incubated by IIT Madras Pravartak Technologies Foundation, a Section 8 (Not for Profit) Company established by IIT Madras. 
Important Features

Key features of the new made-in-India OS:

  • No default apps: BharOS does not include any bloatware or default apps, giving users more storage space. Without any default apps, users are also not forced to use any app they may not trust.
  • NOTA updates: BharOS offers "Native Over The Air" (NOTA) updates, similar to Android, which means the software updates will be automatically downloaded and installed on the device.
  • Access to PASS: The new OS will also provide access to Private App Store Services (PASS), which offer trusted apps from specific organisations.

A PASS provides access to a curated list of apps that have been thoroughly vetted and have met certain security and privacy standards of organisations. This means users can be confident that the apps they are installing are safe to use and have been checked for any potential security vulnerabilities or privacy concerns

  • Because all smartphones either run on Android or on iOS, there has always been a pervasive uneasiness about how these companies collect, store and use the data that is generated by Indian smartphone users. 
    • BharOS tries to address these issues.
Comparison of BharOS & Android



  • Technically, BharOS is very similar to Android because they share the same basics. Because BharOS uses AOSP or Android Open Source Project, the functionalities and the methodologies both OS use are essentially the same. 


  • What sets BharOS apart from Android, is that it is free from Google Services and Apps. 
    • Google has used its preinstalled apps and services to collect data, sometimes without explicitly asking a user. 
    • Similarly, other apps from Google’s PlayStore share data with third-party services.
    • BharOS does not come with any
Which is better BharOS or Android?
  • BharOS sure has its benefits especially when we speak of security and privacy. However, Android has a few legacy advantages that will be hard for people to give up.
  • Android actually supports a wide range of devices and hardware, ranging from a basic smartphone worth Rs 6000-7000 or even lower to a complex, and expensive, a foldable smartphone that costs north of Rs 1,00,000. 
    • We don’t know what sort of devices BharOS will support.
  • Another advantage is that Android has a very wide user base so bugs and issues are quickly reported and resolved. 
    • Very rarely do we get to see bugs in the Android OS – most bugs crop up when OEMs try to lay their own UI on top of Android. 
    • We also don’t know how frequently will BharOS receive updates, security or generational.

ISRO to soon launch Aditya-L1


The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is planning to launch the Aditya-L1 mission by June or July this year. 

About Aditya-L1 mission
  • Aditya-L1 Mission is India’s first solar mission planned by ISRO. Earlier the name was Aditya -1, which has been renamed as Aditya-L1 Mission.
  • Aditya-L1 is the first Indian space mission to observe the Sun and the solar corona.
  • It is ISRO’s second space-based astronomy mission after AstroSat for a scientific expedition to study the Sun. 
  • ISRO planned to place the satellite in the halo orbit around the Lagrangian Point (L1).  Hence the mission was renamed as Aditya L1 mission.
Objectives of the mission
  • to help in tracking Earth-directed storms and predict their impact through solar observations

Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) are large expulsions of plasma and magnetic fields from the Sun’s corona.

  • to research the Sun’s corona (Visible and Near-infrared rays), photosphere (soft and hard X-ray), chromosphere (Ultra Violet rays), solar emissions, solar winds and flares, and Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs), as well as conduct round-the-clock imaging of the Sun
Payloads used for the mission
  • The 1,500 kg satellite carries seven science payloads with diverse objectives.
  • Seven science payloads:
    • Visible Emission Line Coronagraph (VELC)
    • Solar Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (SUIT)
    • Aditya Solar wind Particle Experiment (ASPEX)
    • Plasma Analyser Package for Aditya
    • Solar Low Energy X-ray Spectrometer (SoLEXS)
    • High Energy L1 Orbiting X-ray Spectrometer (HEL1OS)
    • Magnetometer
What are Lagrange Points?

Lagrange points are named in honour of Italian-French mathematician Josephy-Louis Lagrange.

  • Lagrange Points are positioned in space where the gravitational forces of a two-body system like the Sun and the Earth produce enhanced regions of attraction and repulsion.
  • These can be used by spacecraft to reduce fuel consumption needed to remain in position.


There are five Lagrange points in the Sun-Earth system. Of the five Lagrange points in the Sun-Earth system, only the last two, called L4 and L5, are stable. Satellites at the First three points need constant adjustments to stay balanced and in place.

  • L-1: The first Lagrange point is located between the Earth and the Sun, giving satellites at this point a constant view of the Sun. 
    • The Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), a NASA and European Space Agency satellite tasked to monitor the Sun, orbits the first Lagrange point, about 1.5 million kilometres away from Earth.
  • L-2: The second Lagrange point is about the same distance from the Earth, but is located behind the Earth. Earth is always between the second Lagrange point and the Sun. 
    • Since the Sun and Earth are in a single line, satellites at this location only need one heat shield to block heat and light from the Sun and Earth. It is a good location for space telescopes.
  • L-3: The third Lagrange point is opposite the Earth on the other side of the Sun so that the Sun is always between it and Earth. 
    • A satellite in this position would not be able to communicate with Earth. The extremely stable fourth and fifth Lagrange points are in Earth’s orbital path around the Sun, 60 degrees ahead of and behind Earth.
  • L4 and L5 are 60° ahead and behind the Earth in the same orbit.

Short news Article

Polity & Governance

Indigenously made weapons, women power showcased at Republic Day parade

The Indian military showcased only indigenous equipment and weapon systems to drive home the message of self-reliance in defence.

  • “Atma Nirbharta” (self-reliance) and “Nari Shakti” (women power) were the two themes on display at the Republic Day parade.

“Atma Nirbharta” (self-reliance)

  • Military: The Indian military showcased only indigenous equipment and weapon systems to drive home the message of self-reliance in defence.
    • The Army’s British-era 25-pounder guns — which traditionally offered the symbolic 21-gun salute — were replaced by the indigenous 105-mm Indian Field Guns (IFG) this year.
    • The Army’s mechanised column comprised three MBT Arjun MK-I, one Nag Missile System (NAMIS), two BMP 2/2K, three Quick Reaction Fighting Vehicles (QRFV), two K-9 Vajra Self Propelled Howitzer Guns, one Brahmos missile, two 10m Short Span Bridges, a Mobile Microwave Node and Mobile Network Centre, and two Akash missile systems.
  • Air Force: A 50-aircraft grand airshow was put up by the Indian Air Force (IAF).
    • It included 23 fighter aircraft, 18 helicopters, and eight transport aircraft alongside a Dakota aircraft.
  • Navy: Blending vintage and modernity, the Navy’s vintage IL38 SD aircraft flew the first and last time, as well as the modern Rafale jet.
    • The indigenous Light Combat Helicopter Prachand, inducted into the IAF was also part of the flypast.

“Nari Shakti” (women power)

  • The Navy’s tableau showcased a woman air crew of Dornier aircraft highlighting the all-women crew of a surveillance sortie undertaken last year.
  • Both the Navy and the IAF contingents were led by women officers.
  • Another woman Army air defence officer led the Akash missile system column.


National Tourism Day 2023

National Tourism Day is celebrated across the country on January 25 every year.


  • The day is observed to cultivate awareness among the global community on the importance of tourism and its social, political, financial and cultural worth.
  • National Tourism Day was first celebrated by the Indian government in 1948, according to reports.
  • Forms: India offers several forms of tourism such as cultural, nature, heritage, educational, business, sports, rural, medical, cruise and eco-tourism.

Tourism Governance in India

  • Nodal Agency: The ministry of tourism is the nodal agency in India to form national policies for the promotion and development of tourism.
    • It also coordinates with central, state agencies and the public sector.


A Battle-Fit Police


A conference of the Directors General of Police of all the states and union territories was held, organised by the Intelligence Bureau which highlighted the increasing security-related problems and the need for reforms in policing model.

Highlighted concerns in the Conference:
  • The increasing rate of Crime: The events of chain-snatching, kidnapping, robbery, murder, communal riot, terrorist outrage or any other law and order situation is increasing and police interventions are neglected in terms of reforms.
  • Overpendency of cases: The overburdening of police staff makes them inefficient and affects their working condition.
  • Tougher conditions of work: Since Independence, 36,044 police personnel have died in the performance of their duties. Police duties in India are tougher than in any other part of the world.
You must be logged in to get greater insights.


QUIZ - 27th January 2023

Verifying, please be patient.

Enquire Now