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28th April 2023

India’s message to China: ‘Basis Of Bilateral Relations Eroded’


Underscoring the need for peace and tranquillity at the border, India said "Violation of existing agreements has eroded the entire basis of bilateral relations".


  • The meeting was held on the SCO (Shanghai Cooperation Organisation) 's sidelines.
  • India stressed that bilateral ties between both countries have eroded and that any form of bilateral engagement between New Delhi and Beijing would be a function of peace and tranquillity along the Line of Actual Control.

The issue in brief

  • India does not consider its current boundaries with China as an international border.

Mapping the border

  • The border between India and China is not clearly demarcated throughout.
  • Along specific stretches of its 3,488 km length, there is no mutually agreed Line of Actual Control (LAC).
  • The India-China border is divided into three sectors;
    • Western: The boundary dispute in the Western Sector pertains to the Johnson Line proposed by the British in the 1860s that extended up to the Kunlun Mountains and put Aksai Chin in the then princely state of Jammu and Kashmir.
    • Middle: In the Middle Sector, is the only one where India and China have exchanged maps on which they broadly agree.
    • Eastern: The dispute is over the McMahon Line.
  • The unresolved international boundary, with roots in imperial British cartographic blunders, is called-
    • Line of Actual Control in India's North
    • McMahon Line in the northeast

What are the other sources of contention between the two?

  • Competing interests: Despite growing economic cooperation, India and China have also been geopolitical rivals. Both countries are attempting to assert their global influence, and they have competing interests in a number of regions such as the Asia-Pacific and the Indian Ocean.
  • Rivalry: India and China are rivals in the Asia-Pacific region.
    • India has sought to increase its regional influence, forming alliances with several countries in the region, including Japan and Australia.
    • China, on the other hand, has been attempting to assert its regional dominance by increasing its military and economic presence in the South China Sea.

WHO launches initiative to prepare world for pandemics


The World Health Organization (WHO) launched a new initiative to be better prepared for future outbreaks of a similar scale and devastation as the COVID-19 pandemic.

  • Aim: The Preparedness and Resilience for Emerging Threats (PRET) Initiative is aimed at providing “guidance on integrated planning for responding to any respiratory pathogen such as influenza or coronaviruses”.
  • Focus on the first module: While the current focus of PRET will be on respiratory viruses — in the backdrop of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, and possible threat of an avian influenza outbreak — work is already underway to assess what should be the next group of pathogens to be mitigated under this initiative.
  • PRET incorporates the latest tools and approaches for shared learning and collective action established during the COVID-19 pandemic and other recent public health emergencies. 

    Key terminology

    • An epidemic is an outbreak of a disease in a particular location.
    • A pandemic is an outbreak of a disease which spreads to and occurs in many different geographic areas at the same time.
    • Endemic diseases are established and circulating regularly in populations. Some endemic diseases such as influenza can have surges in transmission or have epidemics at certain times.
    • A pathogen is an organism which causes a disease to its host, including but not limited to viruses.

Dimasa rebel group signs peace pact with Centre


In the latest development, Dimasa National Liberation Army (DNLA)/Dimasa People’s Supreme Council (DPSC), an Assam-based insurgent group, signed a peace agreement with the State Government and the Centre.

What is in the agreement?

Who is Dimasa?

  • The Dimasa was a major, late medieval, or early modern kingdom in Assam ruled by Dimasa kings, also called Timisa in the Ahom Buranjis.
  • They now live in Dima Hasao, Karbi Anglong, Cachar, Hojai and Nagaon districts of central and southern Assam, as well as parts of Nagaland.
  • Surrender and no violence: Under the agreement, the DNLA representatives have agreed to give up violence, surrender including the surrender of arms and ammunition, disband their armed organisation, vacate all camps occupied by DNLA cadres and join the mainstream.
    • As a result of this agreement, more than 168 armed cadres of DNLA surrendered with their weapons and joined the mainstream.
  • The setting of Dimasa Welfare Council: Dimasa Welfare Council will be set up by the Government of Assam to protect, preserve and promote a social, cultural, and linguistic identity to meet political, economic and educational aspirations.
    • It will ensure the speedy and focused development of the Dimasa people residing outside the jurisdiction of the Autonomous Council.
  • It also provides for the appointment of a Commission under the Sixth Schedule to the Constitution of India to examine the demand for the inclusion of additional villages contiguous to the North Cachar Hills Autonomous Council (NCHAC) with the Council.

Significance of the agreement

  • End to insurgency: The agreement will bring a complete end to the insurgency in the Dima Hasao district of Assam.

Dimasa National Liberation Army (DNLA)

  • The DNLA was established in 2019 seeking a sovereign territory for the Dimasa tribals and launched an armed insurgency to achieve its goal.
  • Area of operation: Dima Hasao district

Indian Army to raise cyber operations and support wings


With cyber warfare a key focus, especially with, the Army has decided to raise Command Cyber Operations and Support Wings (CCOSW) to help the forces counter enemy capabilities.

About Command Cyber Operations and Support Wings (CCOSW)
  • The CCOSW will assist formations to undertake mandated cyber security functions to strengthen the Army’s cyber security posture. 
  • Aim: To safeguard the networks and increase preparedness levels in this niche domain.
  • This is part of an overall approach to absorb niche technologies and modernise its online networks.

What is the need?

  • Increasing competition from neighbours: China and Pakistan are investing heavily in it.
  • Moving towards net centricity: The army is rapidly migrating towards net centricity, which entails an increased reliance on modern communication systems.
  • Widening cyberspace: Cyberspace has emerged as an important component of the military domain, both in grey zone warfare as well as conventional operations. 
  • Inclusion of tech-enabled equipment: A large number and variety of niche tech-enabled equipment are being inducted into the Indian Army. These include a variety of tactical/mini/micro/logistics drones or UAVs, drone swarms, loitering weapons systems, and electronic warfare and anti-drone equipment, among others.

Short News Article

International Relations

Exercise Ajay Warrior 2023

India and the United Kingdom began the seventh edition of the bilateral training exercise Ajay Warrior 2023. 


  • AJAY WARRIOR exercise is a joint military drill focused on counter-terrorist operations in urban and semi-urban settings.
  • Designed to provide company-level joint training.
  • This exercise between armies of UK and India aims to enhance interoperability while operating under UN Mandate.


International Relations

United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues

22nd session of the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues (UNPFII).

  • The United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues (UNPFII) is an advisory body to the Economic and Social Council. 
  • The Forum was established in 2000 with the mandate to deal with indigenous issues related to economic and social development, culture, the environment, education, health and human rights.

Polity & Governance

Centre de-recognises two postal unions

The Centre has de-recognised the All India Postal Employees Union (AIPEU) and the National Federation of Postal Employees (NFPE) for making contributions to the farmers’ protests.


  • The AIPEU, formed in Kolkata in 1920, is one of the oldest unions in India.
  • The NFPE is the largest federation in the sector with eight postal employees unions, including the AIPEU, affiliated to it.
  • The Union Ministry of Communications took the decision based on Central Civil Services (Recognition of Service Association) Rules, 1993.

Science & Technology

INS Tarkash deployed for Operation Kaveri


India has deployed its third warship INS Tarkash under the ongoing Operation Kaveri to evacuate all the Indians stuck in war ravaged Sudan.

About INS Tarkash

  • INS Tarkash is a state-of-the-art stealth frigate of the Indian Navy equipped with a versatile range of weapons.
  • It has a weapon-sensor fit that enables her address threats in all dimensions.
  • The ship is part of the Indian Navy’s Western Fleet. 


Should India consider phasing out nuclear power?


Germany has shut down the last of its nuclear power plants; France, the nuclear powerhouse of the world, is struggling to replenish its stock of ageing reactors.

Global Scenario

  • A lot has happened in the last two years. Particularly after the Ukraine war, nuclear power is seeing a renaissance.
  • South Korea’s new president has changed the energy policy and committed to increasing the share of nuclear power in the country’s energy mix to 30% by 2030.
  • Japan, which should have completely shut down reactors after the Fukushima (accident), is restarting them — 10 have been restarted.


  • Low carbon source: The value that nuclear provides is of being low carbon, firm etc. Firm power is the power that can be sent to the electric grid to be supplied whenever needed.
  • Cuts Import Bills: Nuclear energy will also relieve the nation of about $100 billion annually which we spend on importing petroleum and coal.
  • A reliable source of Energy: Nuclear power plants are capital-intensive and recent nuclear builds have suffered major cost overruns.
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