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IAS Mains 2024: Complete (GS & Optional) Syllabus Revision & Updation. Get Details
2nd September 2022 (9 Topics)

2nd September 2022

QUIZ - 2nd September 2022

5 Questions

5 Minutes

Mains Question:

Q1. “Women’s land rights and gender justice in land governance are fundamental pillars in protection of women’s human rights”. Comment (250 words)


  • Introduction- brief about women’s landownership
  • Issues faced by women (degraded women’s rights) 
    • patriarchy
    • gender-based discrimination in laws, customs and practices

The fear game

  • Fathers fear losing control over land if given to married daughters.
  • Daughters fear damaging family relations if they claim their shares.
  • Policymakers fear land fragmentation
  • severe inequalities to access and control land and other natural resources
  • limited participation in decision-making in land governance
  • Discuss women’s land rights as a key determinant of women’s empowerment in rural areas
    • attainment of practice civil and political rights, social and economic rights
    • rid of poverty and social exclusion
  • Government measures
    • 2005 Hindu Succession Amendment Act (HSAA)
    • 30% seats reserved for women at all levels of local government
  • Required measures 
    • gender-disaggregated data on land ownership
    • innovative policies to increase women’s actual ownership
    • need to increase women’s awareness of their rights
  • Conclude accordingly 



Gender parity is more than a diversity rectification issue in India. Gender discrimination in academics is not new to the Indian context, it’s an age-old story that must end.

Gender-Bias Against women: Changing Situation

  • The general bias against women which arose out of the suspected capability of their intelligence and their mettle in undertaking the arduous task of research was quite common in the 20th century. Things have changed and the glass ceiling has been broken.
  • Some of the initiatives by the government to remove gender inequality by providing incentives to women are: Gender Advancement for Transforming Institutions (GATI), and Knowledge Involvement in Research Advancement through Nurturing (KIRAN), i.e., a plan under the Department of Science and Technology again to encourage women scientists in science and technology and also preventing women scientists from giving up research due to family reasons, are noteworthy.

Women and STEM:

  • According to UNESCO’s data on some selected countries, India is in the lowest position, having only 14% female researchers working in STEM areas. But India is not very far behind many advanced countries in this aspect. For example, Japan has only 16% female researchers, the Netherlands 26%, the United States 27%, and the United Kingdom 39%.
  • In India, about 43% of women constitute the graduate population in STEM, which is one of the highest in the world, but only 14% of women join academic institutions and universities. According to a report published recently, at most STEM institutes, women occupy 20% of all professorial positions. The more prestigious the institute, the lower the number of women employees. Also, the number of female participants in decision-making bodies is abysmally low.
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