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5th April 2024 (10 Topics)

5th April 2024

QUIZ - 5th April 2024

5 Questions

5 Minutes


Recent developments have highlighted a growing anti-India sentiment in Bangladesh, reminiscent of the wave observed earlier in Maldives. Social media trolls have sparked controversy, leading to a diplomatic standoff between India and Bangladesh. This emerging trend underscores a significant shift in the bilateral relations between the two countries.

1: Dimension-Factors fuelling the Anti-India Wave in Bangladesh

  • Historical grievances: Some segments of the Bangladeshi population harbor historical grievances, particularly regarding India's role in the Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971.
  • Perceived interference: Recent political developments in Bangladesh, coupled with allegations of Indian interference in internal affairs (India’s actively siding with Sheikh Hasina), have contributed to the anti-India sentiment.
  • Social media influence: Similar to the situation in Maldives, social media platforms have played a pivotal role in amplifying anti-India narratives, further exacerbating tensions between the two nations.

2: Dimension-Significance of Bangladesh for India

  • Bangladesh is in a geographic position to provide India’s landlocked Northeast with access to the sea.
  • It offered India the usage of Bangladesh’s Mongla and Chattogram ports for cargo movement and the development of Assam and Tripura.
  • Furthermore, as India’s immediate eastern neighbour and a land bridge to Southeast Asia, Bangladesh is critical for India’s Act East and Neighbourhood First policies.

3: Dimension-Implication for Both Countries

  • Diplomatic tensions: The brewing anti-India sentiment has strained diplomatic relations between India and Bangladesh, potentially undermining years of bilateral cooperation and goodwill.
  • Regional stability: As two neighboring countries, India and Bangladesh share a crucial relationship that impacts regional stability and security. Any deterioration in relations could have broader implications for South Asian geopolitics.
  • Economic cooperation: A reduction in Indian imports may force Bangladesh to import from China. It will increase Bangladesh’s dependence on China.
    • It will impact Bangladesh’s corporate sector, particularly in software and service-based businesses, as well as the hiring of Indian skilled workers and experts in Bangladesh.

4: Dimension-Transformation in India’s global image

  • India's global image has transformed and it signifies its emergence as a dynamic player in the evolving geopolitical landscape, navigating complex international relations while pursuing its strategic interests and aspirations for global leadership. This shift is evident in several aspects:
  • Evolving Diplomatic Alliances: India's diplomatic engagements have expanded beyond its historical allies to include new partners, particularly in the Indo-Pacific region.
    • Example: The Quad alliance comprising India, the United States, Japan, and Australia aims to promote a free and open Indo-Pacific, reflecting India's strategic recalibration.
  • Economic Aspirations and Power Dynamics: India's robust economic growth and aspirations for global leadership have influenced its foreign policy priorities.
    • Example: Initiatives like the 'Make in India' campaign and participation in multilateral trade agreements signify India's ambition to enhance its economic stature on the world stage.
  • Security and Defense Cooperation: India's focus on bolstering its defense capabilities and security partnerships has reshaped its global positioning.
    • Example: Defense agreements with countries like the United States and France demonstrate India's proactive approach to safeguarding its interests in an evolving geopolitical landscape.
  • Multilateral Engagements: India's active involvement in multilateral forums reflects its desire to shape global discourse and policies.
    • Example: Leadership roles in organizations like the United Nations and participation in climate change initiatives highlight India's commitment to addressing global challenges.

Fact Box

  • India shares a 4,100-km-long border with Bangladesh. Bilateral trade between the countries exceeded USD 15 billion in 2021-22.
  • India is Bangladesh’s biggest trading partner.
  • Bangladesh depends on India for essential imports, including raw materials, machinery, and agricultural goods.
  • India gains from Bangladesh’s exports of its garments, textiles, and medicines.
  • International Forums where India and Bangladesh are Common Members
    • South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)
    • Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC)
    • Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation (IORA)
  • Major Issues Between India and Bangladesh: Teesta River Water Dispute, illegal migration, trafficking, Rohingya Issue


Q: “The long sustained image of India as a leader of the oppressed and marginalised nations has disappeared on account of its newfound role in the emerging global order”. Elaborate (UPSC 2019)


US is urging India to maintain the implementation of the oil price cap aimed at limiting profits to Russia, while also promoting stable global energy markets.

1: Dimension- Price Cap and Objective

  • Following Russia's invasion of Ukraine, the G7 nations, the European Union, and Australia jointly implemented a price cap.
  • The price cap is helping maintain a steady supply of energy to global consumers and businesses, and providing key importers like India with more leverage to drive steeper bargains.
  • At the same time, the price cap, along with key sanctions enforcement measures, is reducing Russia’s profits from selling that oil.
  • India, which was the top buyer of Russian oil in 2023, has been heavily criticised for its continued purchase of discounted oil from Moscow.

2: Dimension- Impact of price caps

The imposition of price caps due to Western sanctions on Russian oil significantly impacts India's oil trade with Russia in several ways:

  • Supply Disruption and Dependency Concerns: Price caps may disrupt the steady supply of crude oil to India, which heavily relies on imports to meet its energy needs.
  • Economic Impact and Trade Relations: It could lead to increased prices for Indian importers, resulting in higher costs for refining and production. This may strain India's trade relations with Russia, as the country seeks cost-effective energy sources to sustain its economic growth and development.
  • Diversification Efforts and Strategic Considerations: It may prompt India to accelerate its efforts to diversify its oil imports, reducing reliance on Russian oil and exploring alternative markets.
  • Impact on Bilateral Cooperation: The imposition of price caps could affect bilateral cooperation between India and Russia in the energy sector, potentially leading to renegotiations of existing agreements and contracts.
  • Global Energy Market Dynamics: It can contribute to volatility in the global energy market, affecting oil prices and supply chains worldwide.


Taiwan was recently hit by its biggest earthquake in at least 25 years.

Reason behind earthquakes in Taiwan

  • Notably, Taiwan is prone to earthquakes as it lies along the Pacific “Ring of Fire” — where 90% of the world’s earthquakes take place.
  • The island and its surrounding waters have registered about 2,000 earthquakes with a magnitude of 4.0 or greater since 1980, and more than 100 earthquakes with a magnitude above 5.5.
  • Vulnerability of Ring of Fire to earthquakes: The Ring of Fire witnesses so many earthquakes due to constant sliding past, colliding into, or moving above or below each other of the tectonic plates.
    • As the edges of these plates are quite rough, they get stuck with one another while the rest of the plate keeps moving.
  • An earthquake occurs when the plate has moved far enough and the edges unstick on one of the faults.
  • Taiwan experiences earthquakes due to the interactions of two tectonic plates
    • Philippine Sea Plate
    • Eurasian Plate

Volcano Issue

  • The existence of volcanoes in the Ring of Fire is also due to the movement of tectonic plates.
  • Many of the volcanoes have been formed through a process known as
  • It takes place when two plates collide with each other and the heavier plate is shoved under another, creating a deep trench.

Fact Box: Ring of Fire

  • The Ring of Fire is a string of hundreds of volcanoes and earthquake-sites which runs along the Pacific Ocean.
  • It is a semicircle or horse shoe in shape and stretches nearly 40,250 kilometres.
  • The Ring of Fire traces the meeting points of numerous tectonic plates, including the Eurasian, North American, Juan de Fuca, Cocos, Caribbean, Nazca, Antarctic, Indian, Australian, Philippine, and other smaller plates, which all encircle the large Pacific Plate.


The political parties have headed into election mode across the country and all candidates who are in the fray have their own symbols besides the symbol of their respective parties.

What is election symbol?

  • An electoral or election symbolis a standardized symbol allocated to a political party.
  • Types of Election Symbol: As per the Election Symbols (Reservation and Allotment) (Amendment) Order, 2017,party symbols are either “reserved” or “free”.
    • Reserved:Eight national parties and 64 state parties across the country have “reserved” symbols
    • Free:ECI has a pool of nearly 200 “free” symbols. These symbols are allotted to the thousands of unrecognized regional parties in the country.
  • They are used by the parties during their campaigning and are shown on Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs),where the voter chooses the symbol and votes for the associated party.
  • The symbol of a party is one of extreme relevanceto political survival.
  • For many Indian voters who do not read, the symbol is their association with the party when they exercise their franchise. Hence, importance is given to the symbol of the party.

Election Commission’s powers:

  • The Election Symbols (Reservation and Allotment) Order, 1968empowers the EC to recognize political parties and allot symbols.
  • EC can decidedisputes among rival groups or sections of a recognized political party staking claim to its name and symbol.
  • The EC is the only authority to decide issueson a dispute or a merger under the order.
  • This applies to disputes in recognized national and state parties. However, if any of the parties is not satisfied then they can approach the courts.


For years, the states and the Union have been pitted on who has the legislative competence over each type of alcohol. However, in a latest update, the Supreme Court has ruled that the States' power to legislate to regulate industrial alcohol is untrammeled and complete.

Overlapping jurisdictions under various lists

  • Entry 52of the Union List empowers the central government to regulate industries that Parliament finds to be of “public interest.”
  • Parliament—acting in accordance with the Union List—through Section 18-G of the Industries (Development and Regulation) Act, 1951(Industries Act), is entrusted with the power to regulate specific products related to scheduled industries to the Union government.
    • This was done to ensure that these products were being distributed fairly and sold at reasonable prices. 
  • Under Entry 8of the State List, a state is empowered to make laws for “Intoxicating liquors, that is to say, the production, manufacture, possession, transport, purchase and sale of intoxicating liquors.”
  • However, under Entry 33of the Concurrent List both the state and Union governments can make laws on the products of any industry, even if Parliament has granted control to the Union in public interest.
  • And therein lies the confusion of who has the power to regulate industrial alcohol—the state or the Union.

Fact Box

Industrial alcohol is used as a raw material to create other products, and is not meant for human consumption.


By 2040, cases of prostate cancer are likely to double worldwide to 2.9 million per year, from 1.4 million per year in 2020, according to a new analysis published in the Lancet Commission.


  • Prostate cancer is cancer that occurs in the prostate.
  • Prostate cancer, which accounts for 15 per cent of all male cancers, is already a major cause of death and disability.
  • It is the most common form of male cancer in more than half of the world’s countries.
  • The currently available prostate cancer screening is the PSA test — a blood test that measures protein levels called prostate-specific antigen (PSA).

Fact Box: Prostate

  • The prostate is below the bladder (the hollow organ where urine is stored) and in front of the rectum (the last part of the intestines).
  • Behind the prostate are glands called seminal vesicles, which make most of the fluid for semen. The urethra, which is the tube that carries urine and semen out of the body through the penis, goes through the center of the prostate.





Union list

  • Simply put, it is a list of matters of national importance that the central government has the sole power to take decisions on.
  • The Union List is a list of 100 subjects that the Union or Centre government enjoys supreme jurisdiction over.


Oil price cap

  • An oil price cap is a limit imposed on the price of oil, usually set by a government or regulatory authority. It aims to prevent excessive price increases that could lead to economic instability or hardship for consumers.



  • Subduction involves the descent of the edge of one lithospheric plate beneath that of another where two such plates collide.


State list of Seventh Schedule


  • The state list is a list of 61 subjects that state legislatures enjoy jurisdiction over.
  • In layman's terms, the state legislature can pass laws and govern the said subjects.


The central government has notified the implementation of three recently enacted criminal laws from July 1, 2024. However, Section 106(2) of the Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita (BNS), 2023, has been put on hold pending discussions with the All India Motor Transport Congress due to concerns raised by truck drivers regarding its severity.

Concerns Regarding Section 106(2):

  • Disproportionate Sentencing: The provision prescribing a maximum of 10 years imprisonment for failing to report a fatal accident without considering medical assistance seems disproportionate compared to other laws.
  • Conflict with Fundamental Rights: Section 106(2) might infringe upon Article 20(3) of the Indian Constitution, which prohibits self-incrimination, as individuals may report accidents due to fear of enhanced punishment.

Introduction of 'Petty Organised Crime':

  • Definition and Scope: Section 112 of the BNS introduces a new offence termed 'petty organised crime,' encompassing various criminal acts committed by groups or gangs.
  • Lack of Clarity: The inclusion of undefined acts like "unauthorised selling of tickets" and "selling of public examination question papers" raises ambiguity about the scope and severity of the offence.
  • Potential Legal Challenges: Without specific sentencing guidelines, the provision may face scrutiny from the Supreme Court for its vague and open-ended nature.

Revisiting Theft Provisions:

  • Non-Cognisable Offence for Low-Value Theft: The BNS categorizes theft of property worth less than ?5,000 as a non-cognisable offence, potentially impacting access to justice for economically disadvantaged victims.
  • Legal Complications: Failure to return stolen property of low value may lead to imprisonment, raising legal and practical challenges in enforcement and recovery.
  • Judicial Discretion: The absence of judicial discretion in sentencing for certain offences, such as trafficking, raises concerns regarding the fairness and constitutionality of the law.
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Despite the introduction of the Voter Verifiable Paper Audit Trail (VVPAT) alongside Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs) and the provision for counting VVPAT tallies from random polling booths, critics continue to raise concerns about the use of EVMs in Indian elections. The Supreme Court of India has listed petitions related to demands for a 100% recount of all VVPATs.

Transparency Enhancement with Machine Audit Trail:

  • Proposal: Some suggest maintaining a machine audit trail of all executed commands beyond just recording votes, allowing for an audit to rule out malicious code and enhance transparency.
  • System Upgrade: Implementing such a measure could make the electoral system more robust and address concerns about potential tampering with EVMs.
  • Need for Audit: Critics argue that a comprehensive audit is necessary to ensure the integrity of the electoral process and instill confidence in the voting system.

Addressing Potential Vulnerabilities Introduced by VVPATs:

  • Concerns Raised: The use of VVPATs has introduced potential vulnerabilities that were not present with standalone EVMs, leading to calls for reworking safeguards to ensure security.
  • Safeguard Enhancement: By strengthening technical and administrative safeguards, VVPAT-combined systems can be made as secure and foolproof as standalone EVMs.
  • Balancing Security and Transparency: Efforts should focus on finding a balance between ensuring the security of the electoral process and maintaining transparency in voting procedures.

Evidence of EVM Reliability and Minimal Discrepancies:

  • Lack of Proof for Tampering: Despite concerns, there has been no concrete evidence of tampering with EVMs, and instances of malpractices remain unsubstantiated.
  • Minimal Discrepancies: Sample counting of VVPATs in elections has revealed minuscule discrepancies between VVPAT recounts and EVM counts, primarily due to minor errors.
  • Solutions for Confidence Building: Enhancing recount samples and implementing targeted recounts in close-margin seats can address concerns and build trust in the electoral process without necessitating a full recount.
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Ahead of the upcoming general elections, the Jan Swasthya Abhiyan has released an 18-point "People’s Health Manifesto," urging all political parties to prioritize healthcare. The manifesto outlines seven interrelated shifts in health policies and systems to address the challenges faced by India's healthcare sector.

Emphasizing Primary Healthcare:

  • Public Health Solutions: The manifesto advocates for expanding and enhancing public health facilities, especially at the primary level, to improve healthcare accessibility.
  • Successful Models: Examples like Mohalla Clinics in Delhi, upgraded Family Health Centres in Kerala, and the Tamil Nadu Medical Services Corporation model demonstrate effective public health solutions.
  • Importance of Rebuilding: Prioritizing primary healthcare over symbolic gestures like renaming health centers is crucial for improving healthcare delivery.

Increased Public Health Financing:

  • Urgent Need: The manifesto calls for a substantial increase in public health financing by both central and state governments to support healthcare improvements.
  • Financial Expansion: The Union government is urged to raise its public health spending from the current 0.3% of GDP to at least 1%, along with additional financial support to states.
  • Impact on Healthcare Access: Enhanced public health financing is expected to reduce out-of-pocket spending, benefiting large sections of the population and preventing financial distress.

Decentralizing Care:

  • Importance of Accountability: The manifesto emphasizes the need for systematic social accountability and decentralized management of frontline public health services.
  • Successful Examples: Kerala's Panchayat oversight and Maharashtra's "Community-based monitoring and planning" initiative demonstrate effective decentralization efforts.
  • Ground-Level Improvement: Devolution of powers and effective decentralization are essential to ensure improved public delivery at the grassroots level.
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