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9th November 2023 (15 Topics)

9th November 2023

QUIZ - 9th November 2023

5 Questions

5 Minutes


Context –

All year action required to address Delhi’s Air Pollution problem.

Initial Awareness and Policy Actions:

  • Identification of Vehicular Pollution: The Center for Science and Environment (CSE) in 1996 identified vehicular pollution as a significant factor in Delhi's air pollution. Recommendations were made to implement stringent emission standards, enhance fuel quality, and prioritize public transport.
  • Emission Standards and Cleaner Fuels: Over three decades, these propositions were implemented with the enforcement of progressive emission standards, cleaner fuel adoption, and significant shifts to CNG for various vehicles.
  • Urban Mass Transit: The Delhi Metro emerged as the country's most extensive urban mass transit system.

Global Recognition and Issue Mainstreaming:

  • WHO Report Labeling Delhi the Most Polluted Capital: The turning point was in 2014 when a WHO report labeled Delhi the most polluted capital, followed by high-profile incidents like US President Barack Obama's visit during severe smog.
  • Local and Global Attention: The heightened focus catalyzed concerted efforts both locally and globally to tackle the escalating problem of air pollution specifically within Delhi, prompting various initiatives aimed at resolution.
  • Increase in Continuous Monitoring Stations and Identified Pollution Sources: Continuous monitoring stations increased from five to over 40, highlighting multiple pollution sources, including industry, dust, waste burning, and seasonal factors like farm fires and festive firecrackers.

Impact and Persistent Challenges:

  • Health Implications and Continuous Measures: Pollution studies uncovered severe health risks, underlining the necessity for persistent anti-pollution actions.
  • Environmental Context and Year-Round Approach: Recognizing the environmental context's influence on pollution demands a comprehensive, perennial strategy.
  • Supreme Court Interventions and Ecologically Informed Policy: Recent court interventions on issues like stubble burning highlight the necessity for ecologically attuned policies across various sectors for long-term effectiveness.
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Context –

Recent Increase in Female Labour Force has concerns associated.

Rising Female Labour Force Participation

  • Surge in Participation: The labour force participation rate for females in India saw a substantial increase, particularly in rural areas, rising from 18.2% in 2017-18 to 30.5% in 2022-23. Across varied education levels, including uneducated and graduates, the worker population ratio increased significantly.
  • Employment Types: A noteworthy observation is the increased employment in self-employed roles, mainly in household enterprises. These workers weren't engaged in regular wage employment, highlighting a lack of salaried opportunities.
  • NREGA and Economic Trends: Under NREGA, women's participation increased, indicating a preference for less remunerative employment. Despite healthy agricultural growth, the non-farm sector's slowdown contributed to financial distress, possibly prompting increased female labour participation.

Trend Analysis of Participation Rates

  • Periodic Labour Force Survey Data: Examining the data over the years, the most significant increases in female labour participation occurred in 2019-20, followed by 2022-23 and 2020-21. The agricultural sector demonstrated growth, but non-farm sectors experienced a slowdown attributed to financial constraints, particularly the NBFC crisis and subsequent economic impacts.
  • Financial Influence on Labour Market: The financial distress in rural areas due to reduced fund flows and subdued wage growth possibly led to a surge in female participation. However, recent trends in improved fund inflow and smaller firm performance hint at a change in the situation, with potential positive implications for employment and income growth.
  • Economic Implications and Recent Developments
  • Revival in Financial Environment: Recent indicators suggest improvements in rural credit growth and small firm performance, indicating potential economic recovery.
  • Healthier Performance Sector: Reports highlight healthier performances by smaller players in segments like FMCG, potentially signaling better employment and income opportunities.
  • Wage Growth and Economic Revival: Signs of wage growth and increased credit flow through NBFCs in rural areas indicate a positive shift in employment and financial prospects, portraying an improving economic scenario with potential benefits for labour force participation.
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Context –

The bicentenary of the arrival of Tamil indentured labourers in Sri Lanka also points to the unfulfilled task of nation-building in the island-nation.

Historical Context and Migration of Indentured Labourers

  • Commemorating Indentured Labour Arrival in Sri Lanka: Bicentenary of Tamil indentured labourers' arrival in Sri Lanka recently celebrated in Colombo, marking a significant chapter in colonial history.
  • Colonial Context and Indentured Labour Dynamics: The wave of liberal humanism in Europe coincided with the British Empire's exploitation and 'indentured labour,' replacing slavery in their colonies.
  • Challenges and Deceptions Faced by Indentured Labourers: Indentured labourers were misled about work, wages, destination, leading to a perilous voyage and debt upon arrival.

Plantation Life and Challenges Faced

  • Adversities Encountered by Indentured Labourers: Harsh conditions faced by indentured labourers in unfamiliar lands, compelled to work in plantations without basic facilities or rights.
  • Discrimination and Exploitation of Plantation Tamils: Plantation Tamils experienced discrimination and were denied basic services, encountering exploitation by sub-contractors known as 'kanganies.'
  • Colonial Deprivation and Stateless Plight of Workers: The colonial system rendered them stateless, deprived of fair wages, land ownership, and rights to return after their service period.

Post-Colonial Challenges and the Quest for Identity:

  • Cultural Resilience and Integration of Plantation Tamils: Efforts by democratic parties have granted citizenship and democratic rights, and plans to make workers landowners remain in progress.
  • Citizenship Gains and Progress in Land Ownership: Efforts by democratic parties have granted citizenship and democratic rights, and plans to make workers landowners remain in progress.
  • Decolonisation and the Quest for Inclusive National Identity: De-colonisation and the quest for a post-colonial, inclusive identity remain crucial for Sri Lanka's economic, social revival, and nation-building.
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