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4th August 2022 (7 Topics)

Deep Sea Biodiversity


The National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT), an autonomous Institute under Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES) is establishing an Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion plant with a capacity of 65kW in Kavaratti Lakshadweep.


Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC):

  • Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is a process or technology for producing energy by harnessing the temperature differences (thermal gradients) between ocean surface waters and deep ocean waters.

How it works?

  • Energy from the sun heats the surface water of the ocean.
  • In tropical regions, surface water can be much warmer than deep water.
  • This temperature difference can be used to produce electricity and to desalinate ocean water.
  • Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) systems use a temperature difference (of at least 77° Fahrenheit) to power a turbine to produce electricity.
  • Warm surface water is pumped through an evaporator containing a working fluid. The vaporized fluid drives a turbine/generator.
  • The vaporized fluid is turned back to a liquid in a condenser cooled with cold ocean water pumped from deeper in the ocean.
  • OTEC systems using seawater as the working fluid can use the condensed water to produce desalinated water.


  • Economic Benefits
    • Reduced fuel imports
    • Stable utilities pricing
    • Reduced capital expense to Power Companies & Government
    • Allows for power usage to be increased affordably Reduced burden on existing utilities
  • Social & Environmental Benefits
    • Affordable fresh water production
    • Promotes aquaculture
    • Creates jobs & export opportunities
    • Diversifies fuel options & provides energy independence
    • World leadership role in eco- awareness
    • Environmentally Responsible Limitless renewable energy from local resources
    • Fossil fuel avoidance
    • OTEC can save up to 15,000 bbls of oil per year per MW
    • Zero emissions – OTEC saves nearly 7,000 tons of CO2 per year per MW

OTEC in India:

  • India had planned to set up an OTEC plant way back in 1980, off the Tamil Nadu coast, but with the foreign vendor closing down its operation, it had to be abandoned.
  • Chennai-based National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT), under the Earth Sciences Ministry has now developed expertise in design, assembly and deployment of deep sea pipelines, reviving India's hopes to explore Ocean Thermal Energy.
  • India’s Potential: India has the potential to generate 180,000 MW using OTEC, which demonstrates the prospects for OTEC in India in the future.

OTEC Plant:

  • Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion plant will be established by NIOT, with a capacity of 65kW in Kavaratti Lakshadweep.
  • Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion plant will power the Low Temperature Thermal Desalination (LTTD) based desalination plant for conversion of Sea water into Potable water.
  • The capacity of this LTTD plant is 1 lakh litre of potable water per day.

National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT):

  • The National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT) was established in November 1993 as an autonomous society under the Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India.
  • NIOT is managed by a Governing Council and the Director is the head of the Institute.
  • Major aim of starting NIOT under the Ministry of Earth Sciences, is to develop reliable indigenous technologies to solve the various engineering problems associated with harvesting of non-living and living resources in the Indian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), which is about two-thirds of the land area of India.
  • Mission:
    • To develop world class technologies and their applications for sustainable utilization of ocean resources.
    • To provide competitive, value added technical services and solutions to organizations working in the oceans.
    • To develop a knowledge base and institutional capabilities in India for management of ocean resources and environment.



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