The European Space Agency launched its Euclid spacecraft on a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket to chart the history of the universe as far back as 10 billion years ago.
What is Euclid Mission?
The European Space Agency's Euclid mission is designed to study the so-called "dark universe."
3D map of the Universe: Euclid will observe billions of galaxies out to 10 billion light-years to create the largest, most accurate 3D map of the Universe, with the third dimension representing time itself.
This detailed chart of the shape, position and movement of galaxies will reveal
Matter distribution: how matter is distributed across immense distances
Evolution: how the expansion of the Universe has evolved over cosmic history, enabling astronomers to infer the properties of dark energy and dark matter
This will help theorists to improve understanding of the role of gravity and pin down the nature of these enigmatic entities.
Developed by: Euclid was designed and built entirely by ESA, with the US space agency, NASA, supplying photodetectors for its near-infrared instrument.
Euclid is a medium-class mission in ESA’s Cosmic Vision Programme.
Spacecraft and instruments:
The Euclid spacecraft is approximately 4.7 m tall and 3.7 m in diameter. It consists of two major components: the service module and the payload module.
Payload module: The payload module comprises a 1.2-m-diameter telescope and two scientific instruments:
The name game
The mission is named after the father of geometry, the ancient Greek mathematician Euclid.
He lived around the year 300 BCE in the city of Alexandria, which was founded by Alexander the Great in 330 BCE.
Visible-wavelength camera(1.2-m reflecting telescope that feeds the two innovative scientific instruments): It takes very sharp images of galaxies over a large fraction of the sky and can view the universe in visible and near-infrared light
Near Infrared Spectrometer and Photometer (NISP) instrument: It can analyse galaxies’ infrared light by wavelength to accurately establish their distance.
Service module: The service module contains the satellite systems: electric power generation and distribution, attitude control, data processing electronics, propulsion, telecommand and telemetry, and thermal control.
What is Dark Matter?
Dark matter is the predominant form of matter in the universe.
Without it, the stars probably would not have formed in the early universe, and the presence of dark matter across the universe is essential to all cosmic structure formation.
Dark matter is not visible and does not absorb radiation.
It deflects light because of its gravitational pull and deforms the shape of the galaxies as seen by the observer.