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20th June 2024 (10 Topics)

Flood Management


The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has extended support to mitigate flood risks associated with the Mullaperiyar and Idukki dams in Kerala by providing space-based inputs related to high-resolution terrain data for the researchers to engage in flood modelling and assess probable inundation by identifying potential flood risks.

Introduction to India's Vulnerability to Floods:

  • India faces significant flood risks due to its geographic diversity, monsoon rains, and changing climate patterns.
  • Over 40 million hectares of land are prone to flooding, affecting states like Assam, Bihar, Odisha, Uttar Pradesh, and West Bengal.
  • Causes: Factors like deforestation, rapid urbanization, and poor agricultural practices exacerbate flood severity in certain regions.
    • Poor town planning, unauthorized and illegal construction, and inadequate urban infrastructure expose Indian cities to flooding.
  • Impact: Loss of human lives, displacement, destruction of crops, and damage to property and other physical infrastructures.
  • Role of Satellite Technology: Satellites, operated by agencies like the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), are pivotal in managing and mitigating flood disasters across India.

ISRO’s role in Disaster Management

 ISRO plays a crucial role in disaster management through its satellite-based applications. These tools aid in monitoring, predicting, and mitigating various natural disasters across India.

  • Flood Management: ISRO provides real-time flood mapping and inundation maps to agencies like National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) and State Relief Commissioners. This helps in timely evacuation and relief operations during floods.
  • Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs): ISRO monitors glacial lakes using satellite data to assess potential risks of GLOFs. This helps in understanding and mitigating flood risks in the Himalayan region.
  • Terrain Mapping: High-resolution terrain data from satellites assist in flood modelling and identifying vulnerable areas prone to inundation, such as around dams like Mullaperiyar and Idukki in Kerala.
  • Information Dissemination: ISRO uses platforms like Bhuvan and National Database for Emergency Management (NDEM) to disseminate critical information to disaster management authorities. This includes flood maps, weather forecasts, and disaster impact assessments.
  • Telemedicine and Tele-education: ISRO's satellites support telemedicine projects, connecting remote healthcare centers with urban hospitals for medical consultations. Similarly, tele-education initiatives like EDUSAT provide educational resources to rural areas.

Meteorological Services: ISRO satellites contribute to weather forecasting and monitoring through collaboration with the India Meteorological Department (IMD). This aids in predicting cyclones and other severe weather events.

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