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India and the new Eurasia

  • Published
    19th Jan, 2023

The changing scenario of Asia and Europe is important to consider for India, as the world geo-politics is more concerned about the Indo-pacific.

  • Japan was the first to build the geo-political stance of the Indo-pacific with Europe.
  • Together Japan, South Korea and Australia are bridging the divide between Asia and Europe which were once seen as separate geopolitical areas.
  • Moreover, the partnership between Asia and Europe has increased by Russia’s war in Ukraine and due to the alliance between Russia and China. Thus, leading to the emergence of a new Eurasia.

How is the geo-politics between Asia and Europe changing?

  • For Japan –The PM of Japan is determined to build strong military partnerships with Europe. He has also said that the security of Europe and the Indo-Pacific is indivisible.
  • South Korea – It is also joining the party by raising its profile in Europe. For example, it is selling major weapons platforms in Poland.
  • Australia – It has joined the US and UK in the AUKUS arrangement, and is equally eager to bring Europe into the Indo-Pacific.

Eurasia is a geological and geopolitical term that relates in the former sense to the single enormous landmass composed of the continents of Europe and Asia and in the latter sense to the socio-political entity within that landmass whose exact borders are debated by scholars.

The term is a portmanteau of the words Europe and Asia. Although the physical combination of Europe and Asia constitutes geologic Eurasia, the land boundary between those two continents is not universally agreed upon.

  How did the ties between Russia and China help in the emergence of new Eurasia?

  • Russia has signed an agreement with China declaring an alliance “without limits” and no “forbidden areas”.
  • China in the past tried to make an alliance with Europe but was unsuccessful in that. So, it joined Russia by blaming NATO for the crisis in Ukraine.
  • However, their alliance resulted in strengthening the Western alliance in Europe and the emergence of a new kind of Eurasia— an alliance between China’s East Asian neighbours and Russia’s West European neighbours.
  • Further, the US invited key Asian partners to participate in the NATO summit held in June last year.
  • The prime ministers of Australia, Japan and New Zealand as well as the president of South Korea joined the summit. This was the first time that Asian leaders joined NATO deliberations.
  • It is expected that NATO’s engagement with Indo-Pacific issues and East Asia’s engagement with European security will continue to be new features of Eurasian geopolitics.
  • Moreover, the US is eager to encourage its partners, including India, to build their capabilities and strengthen regional balances of power in Europe and Asia.

How did the alliance between Russia and China impact Japan?

  • Japan, which has faced a bilateral maritime territorial dispute with China and looking at China’s expansionary policies, changed its security policy.
  • It has planned to double annual defence spending over the next five years, and build a large missile arsenal to deter China and North Korea.
  • It also wants to revive its domestic defence industry as well as build military capacities on the Chinese border by exporting arms.
  • What are the implications for India due to the emergence of new Eurasia?
  • The emergence of new Eurasia brings challenges for India. Earlier, India had a maritime coalition (the Quad) in the Indo-Pacific and at the same time had continental coalitions led by Russia and China.
  • However, the conflict between the US, Europe, and Japan on the one hand and China and Russia on the other will bring challenges for India in balancing its relationship with these countries.
  • Further, the alliance between Russia and China will bring more challenges to India towards its security policies.
  • However, in presence of these events the relationship between India with the US. Europe, Japan, South Korea and Australia have become stronger.

 India is changing scenario:

  • For India, the rise of Eurasia is making it harder to ride on two boats at the same time.
  • Until now, India could manage with the maritime coalition — the Quad — in the Indo-Pacific and run at the same time with the continental coalitions led by Russia and China.
    • But the conflict between the US, Europe, and Japan on the one hand and China and Russia on the other is now acute and shows no signs of immediate amelioration.
  • India’s mounting security challenges from China on the Himalayan frontier and India’s continental strategy will become tougher in the coming era.
  • On the other side, the possibilities for strengthening India’s strategic capabilities in partnership with the US and Europe as well as Japan, South Korea and Australia have never been that stronger.
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