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India's first unmanned Earth satellite 'Aryabhata' shot into space on April 19, 1975

  • Published
    20th Apr, 2022

April 19 is a special day for India's space mission, as on this day in 1975, India's first unmanned Earth satellite, Aryabhata, was shot into space.



  • The Aryabhata spacecraft, named after the famous Indian astronomer, was India's first satellite.
  • It was completely designed and fabricated in India and launched by a Soviet Kosmos-3M rocket from Kapustin Yar on April 19, 1975.


Scientific/ Experimental


360 kg

On board power

46 Watts


VHF band




X-ray Astronomy Aeronomy & Solar Physics

Launch date

April 19, 1975

Launch site

Volgograd Launch Station

(presently in Russia)

Launch vehicle

C-1 Intercosmos


563 x 619 km


50.7 deg

Mission life

6 months(nominal), Spacecraft mainframe active till March,1981

Orbital Life

Nearly seventeen years

(Re-entered on February 10,1992)

  • India became world's 11th nation and the second developing country after China to orbit a satellite.
  • The mission was X-ray astronomy for the detection and study of X-ray emission from outer space, study of solar neutron and gamma rays emanating from the sun, and study of aeronomy including ionosphere.
  • All faces (except the top and bottom) were covered with solar cells. A power failure halted experiments after 4 days in orbit.
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