Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014
Polity & Governance
9th Sep, 2023
As the validity of the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, which had come into force in May 2014, is going to end in 2024, local students fear to lose reservation limit of 85% of seats in educational institutions in Andhra Pradesh as mentioned under Article 371D of the Constitution.
State Reorganization in India:
- Before India gained independence in 1947, its map was marked by princely states and provinces with no clear linguistic or cultural basis.
- Post-independence, linguistic diversity emerged as a significant factor.
- People in different regions of India spoke various languages and felt the need for states where their language was predominant.
- To address these linguistic and cultural demands, the government appointed the States' Reorganization Commission in 1953, led by Justice Fazl Ali.
- The commission recommended the reorganization of states in India based on linguistic lines.
- In 1956, the Indian government implemented the recommendations of the SRC, which led to the reorganization of states along linguistic lines. This resulted in the creation of new states, including Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Karnataka, and Maharashtra, among others.
- The demand for a separate Telangana state gained momentum over several decades due to political, economic, and cultural differences within Andhra Pradesh.
- In 2014, the Indian government passed the Andhra Pradesh Reorganization Act, creating the state of Telangana.
About Article 371D:
- It is a part of the Indian Constitution that provides special protections for a certain region.
- In this case, it's related to Andhra Pradesh. It says that 85% of seats in educational institutions in Andhra Pradesh must be reserved for local students.
- Article 371 D, is incorporated under 32nd amendment to the Constitution in 1973.
- The 32nd Amendment was promulgated to safeguard the rights of local students in education and employment, especially in Andhra Pradesh, as both the Andhra and Telangana regions had witnessed a spate of agitations in the early 1970s.
Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014:
The Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014, played a crucial role in the peaceful separation of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, addressing various administrative, economic, and political aspects of the division.
- Formation of Telangana: The primary purpose of the act was to create the new state of Telangana by carving it out of the existing state of Andhra Pradesh. Telangana officially came into existence on June 2, 2014.
- Proposed common capital: The act designated Hyderabad as the common capital of both Andhra Pradesh and Telangana for a period of ten years, during which time Telangana was required to establish a new capital city.
- Special Provisions: The act contained special provisions to safeguard the interests of various groups, including the allocation of seats in educational institutions and government jobs for people from different regions.
- Division of Assets and Liabilities: It outlined the division of assets, liabilities, and resources between the two states, including the allocation of River waters and the division of government employees.
- Legislative Changes: The act also necessitated changes in the boundaries of the two states and led to adjustments in the legislative and administrative framework to accommodate the new political entities.
What is the procedure to extend the Andhra Pradesh Reogranisation Act?
- To extend or amend the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, a new law or amendment bill needs to be introduced in the Parliament.
- This requires either the Central government or a member of parliament (MP) to propose the amendment.
- The Bill goes through the standard legislative process in the Indian Parliament. It must be introduced in either the Lok Sabha (House of the People) or the Rajya Sabha (Council of States), the two houses of Parliament.
- The bill is then examined by parliamentary committees, debated, and voted upon.
- To pass the amendment bill, it must receive a majority vote in both houses of Parliament. This means it should be approved by a majority of MPs present and voting in each house.
- Once the President gives assent, the amended act is notified and comes into effect. This process may involve extending the provisions of the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014, or making specific amendments to it.
- Article 1 : Name and territory of the Union
- Article 2 : Admission or establishment of new States
- Article 3 : Formation of new States and alteration of areas, boundaries or names of existing States
- Article 4: Laws made under articles 2 and 3 to provide for the amendment of the First and the Fourth Schedule and supplemental, incidental and consequential matters.