Indigenous production of Pulses
10th Jun, 2023
As per information, India is building its pulses production capacity more as compared to Edible oils, in contrast to that both are the significantly import-dependent goods.
- The reduction in pulses imports have come essentially on the back of higher domestic production.
- According to the Agriculture Ministry, India’s pulses output has increased from 19.26 mt in 2013-14 to 27.50 mt in 2022-23.
- Private trade estimates of production are lower at 23-24 mt.
- Even taking 23 mt production and 2.5 mt imports translates into an Atmanirbharta or self-sufficiency ratio of over 90% in pulses, as against hardly 40% for edible oils.
Pulses vs. Edible Oils:
- Major pulses that are grown in India: Tur, urad, moong, masur, peas and gram.
- Chief Characteristics:
- Pulses are the major sources of protein in a vegetarian diet.
- Being leguminous crops, all the above-mentioned pulses (except tur) help in restoring soil fertility by fixing nitrogen from the air.
- Pulses need less moisture and survive even in dry conditions.
- Important Producing Areas: The major pulse producing areas are Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Karnataka. It is grown on about 11% of the total sown area in India.
- India is largest producer and consumer: India is the largest producer as well as consumer of pulses in the world.
- About 25% of the pulses of the world are produced here.
- Yellow/white peas – imported mainly from Canada, Russia, Ukraine and Lithuania – are basically a substitute for chana.
- India’s total imports of edible oils surged to a record Rs. 1.17 lakh crore in 2020-21 marketing year.
- More than half of India’s edible oil consumption is imported; India’s dependence on edible oil imports is to the tune of 65%.
- Sunflower oil accounts for 14% of all edible oil imports
- India imports 25 lakh tonnes of sunflower oil annually, of which 70% comes from Ukraine and 20% from Russia.
- India imports palm oil from Indonesia and Malaysia, while Soyabean oil comes from Brazil and Argentina.
- In 2019, edible oils accounted for 40% of agriculture import bills and 3% of overall import bill of the country.
- Palm Oil (62%) > Soya oil (21%) > Sunflower oil (16%).
- To increase the production of pulses the National Food Security Mission-Pulses programme is being implemented in 644 districts of 28 States and Union Territories (UTs) of Jammu & Kashmir and Ladakh.
- Under NFSM-Pulses, incentives are given to the farmer for cluster demonstration, seeds distribution & production of certified seeds of High Yielding Varieties (HYVs), farm machineries/tools, and efficient water saving devices, plant protection chemicals, nutrient management, soil ameliorants and training to the farmers.