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War over three language formula

  • Category
    Governance
  • Published
    13th Aug, 2020

After the release of the New Education Policy 2020, the Dravidian parties in Tamil Nadu protested against the policy accusing it of imposing Hindi and Sanskrit.

Context

  • After the release of the New Education Policy 2020, the Dravidian parties in Tamil Nadu protested against the policy accusing it of imposing Hindi and Sanskrit.

Background

  • The Union Government had constituted Education Commission in 1964 under the Chairmanship of D.S. Kothari to review the ‘entire educational setup and recommend changes’.
  • The report touched upon every aspect of education ­— aims, objectives, structure, syllabus, teaching methods, pay structure, language in education, science, strength of the class, etc.
  • C. Chagla, the then Union Education Minister, hailed the report as the ‘Teachers’ Magna Carta.’
  • Addressing the issue of language in education, the Commission recommended ‘Three Language Formula’ as a means to Social and National Integration.
  • A different ‘Three Language Formula’ had already been recommended by the Central Advisory Board of Education in 1956 and a simplified version of the same was recommended by the Conference of Chief Ministers in 1961. 
  • The National Policy on Education (1964) that came after the Kothari Commission Report made ‘Three Language Formula’ a policy.
  • Accordingly, all students would study in mother tongue from Class I-IV. In Class V-VIII, the student would study two languages — regional language and English and Hindi depending on the region.
  • The non-Hindi States would make Hindi mandatory and the Hindi States were expected to offer a Southern language.
  • The implementation of these recommendations, however, was not uniform across the country.
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