Golden Triangle and Golden Crescent
1st Oct, 2019
- Golden Triangle and Golden Crescent are the Asia’s two largest principal illicit opium producing areas.
The Golden Crescent
- The Golden Crescent is located in Southwest Asia and consists of three contiguous countries of Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran from East to West.
- Iran is the largest country, Afghanistan the only land locked country and Pakistan shares the maximum land boundaries in this region.
- This is the world's leading illicit opium producing region with the potential production of 5,020 metric tons, out of which Afghanistan alone has 4,950 metric tons of illicit opium production, followed by Pakistan with meager 70 metric tons in 2005 (UNODC, INCSR, 2006).
- Iran is not an opium producing country in this region but is more that of a trans-shipment country.
The Golden Triangle
- The Golden Triangle is located in Southeast Asia comprising of three contiguous countries of Laos, Thailand and Myanmar from East to West.
- Myanmar is the largest country; Laos is the only landlocked country not only of the Golden Triangle but also of that of the entire Southeast Asia and Thailand has the largest coastline in the region.
- The Golden Triangle is the world's second largest illicit opium producing region with a potential production of 5,020 metric tons out of which, Myanmar itself has 30,900 metric tons followed by 10,000 metric tons in Laos and Thailand having the least production of 128 metric tons in 2005 (UNODC, INCSR, 2006). Laos is more that of trans-shipment country. Thailand and Myanmar are money laundering countries.
Comparative Geospatial Profile
- Golden Crescent is territorially larger than Golden Triangle.
- Both Golden Crescent and Golden Triangle are similar regarding the major coastal features such as seas, gulf and deltas. The coastally neighboring countries to Golden Triangle and Golden Crescent make trans-boundary narco-trafficking an international concern.
Concerns for India
- India is vulnerable to narcotic drug trafficking as it is located between two largest Opium producing regions of the world i.e. Golden Crescent in the west and Golden Triangle in the east.
- India is also vulnerable to human trafficking, smuggling and cross-border illegal immigration due to proximity to Golden Triangle and Golden Crescent.
- Trafficking of women and human smuggling in general have also become quite rampant across the India–Bangladesh and India-Nepal borders.
- It has become a challenge for India’s security.