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IAS Mains 2024: Complete (GS & Optional) Syllabus Revision & Updation. Get Details


Published: 5th Apr, 2024





Antiretroviral therapy (ART)

ART is a combination of medications used to treat HIV (human immunodeficiency virus). It works by stopping HIV from reproducing. It can reduce levels of HIV and keep immune system healthy. It’s not a cure, but many people reach undetectable levels of HIV.


Body Temperature


It is a measure of how well human body can make and get rid of heat. Normal human body temperature stays within a narrow range of 36.3-37.3 degrees C. It maintains thermal balance through radiation (40%), evaporation (30%), convection (27%), and conduction (3%).


Carbon budget

Carbon budgets measure how much CO? is produced by industry, homes and all other parts of the economy to calculate by how much emissions must be cut in the future. 


Domestic Value Added

Domestic value added in gross exports is an estimation of value added, by an economy, in producing goods and services for export, simply defined as the difference between gross output at basic prices and intermediate consumption at purchasers' prices. 


Digital divide

Digital divide can be explained as the inequalities between the digital haves and the have-nots in terms of their access to the internet and the ICTs.


Emerging Market and Developing Economies (EMDEs)

An emerging market economy is one in which the country is becoming a developed nation and is determined to improve many socio-economic factors.


Economic inequality

Economic inequality is the unequal distribution of income and opportunity between different groups in society. 


Electromagnetic radiation

Electromagnetic radiation is a type of energy that is all around us and takes many forms, such as radio waves, microwaves, X-rays and gamma-rays. Sunlight is also a form of electromagnetic energy, 



Federalism is a system of government in which the power is divided between a central authority and various constituent units of the country.


Food loss

Food loss refers to uneaten agricultural, forestry, and fishery products. It occurs during the food production and distribution stage. It is also caused by either a reduction in the quantity or quality of food.


Food waste

It refers to edible food that is intended for human consumption, but instead gets discarded or expires. It includes lost or discarded food at all stages of the food system.



Friendshoring is a growing trade practice where supply chain networks are focused on countries regarded as political and economic allies.


Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP)

Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) or State Income is a measure in monetary terms, the sum total volume of all finished goods and services produced during a given period of time, usually a year, within the geographical boundaries of the State, accounted without duplication.


Global South 

  • The Global South is a geographical, geopolitical, historical and developmental concept, all at the same time - with exceptions"
  • Geographically, the term refers to the 32 countries below the equator (in the southern hemisphere), in contrast to the 54 countries that lie entirely north of it. 


Global wind pattern

The global wind pattern is also known as the "general circulation" and the surface winds of each hemisphere are divided into three wind belts:

  • Polar Easterlies: From 60-90 degrees latitude.
  • Prevailing Westerlies: From 30-60 degrees latitude (aka Westerlies).
  • Tropical Easterlies: From 0-30 degrees latitude (aka Trade Winds).

The easterly trade winds of both hemispheres converge at an area near the equator called the "Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)", producing a narrow band of clouds and thunderstorms that encircle portions of the globe


Hindu Kush Himalayas (HKH)

The Hindu Kush Himalayas (HKH) are the freshwater towers of South Asia and parts of Southeast Asia. Water originating from their snow, glaciers and rainfall feed the ten largest river systems in Asia. They stretch over 3500 kilometres and across eight countries – Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Nepal, Myanmar and Pakistan



Ionosphere is part of Earth's upper atmosphere, between 80 and about 600 km where Extreme UltraViolet (EUV) and x-ray solar radiation ionizes the atoms and molecules thus creating a layer of electrons. It is important because it reflects and modifies radio waves used for communication and navigation.


Low-Earth Orbit (LEO)

A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit that is relatively close to Earth’s surface. It is normally at an altitude of less than 1000 km but could be as low as 160 km above Earth – which is low compared to other orbits, but still very far above Earth’s surface.


Protected areas

Protected areas are those in which human occupation or at least the exploitation of resources is limited. 



When the earth remains frozen for at least two consecutive years, it's called permafrost. 


Radio waves

Radio waves are a type of electromagnetic radiation. The best-known use of radio waves is for communication. Radio waves are used for wireless transmission of sound messages, or information, for communication, as well as for maritime and aircraft navigation.


Strategic petroleum reserves (SPRs)

Strategic petroleum reserves (SPRs) are stockpiles of crude oil maintained by countries for release in the event of a supply disruption.


Thermohaline circulation

Thermohaline circulation is a global ocean circulation pattern that distributes water and heat both vertically, through the water column, and horizontally across the globe.


Wet bulb temperature

Wet bulb temperature is the temperature of adiabatic saturation, which is the lowest temperature that can be reached by evaporating water into air at a constant pressure.


Zamindari System

The Zamindari System was a land tenure system prevalent in India during the British colonial period. Under this system, the British East India Company and later the British Raj granted large tracts of land to intermediaries known as zamindars, responsible for collecting revenue from the peasants working on the land


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