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Tribal Development Report 2022

  • Category
    Polity & Governance
  • Published
    9th Dec, 2022

Context

According to the Tribal Development Report 2022, India’s tribal communities are at the bottom of the country’s development pyramid even after 75 years of independence.

The Bharat Rural Livelihood Foundation was set up by the Union Cabinet in 2013 as an independent society under the Union Ministry of Rural Development to scale up civil society action in partnership with central and state governments.

About

About the Report:

Analysed parameters

  • livelihoods
  • Agriculture
  • Natural resources
  • Economy
  • Migration
  • Governance
  • Human development
  • Gender
  • Health
  • Education
  • Art and culture
  • Launched by: The Bharat Rural Livelihood Foundation (BRLF)
  • The report claims to be the first of its kind information since 1947 (after Independence).
  • It focuses on the status of tribal communities at an all-India level and in central India.
  • Key findings:
    • Indigenous communities of Indiahave been pushed farther away from alluvial plains and fertile river basins into the harshest ecological regions of the country like hills, forests, and dry lands.
    • The rules under Forest Conservation Act in 1980,has increased the conflict between environmental protection and the needs of local Adivasi communities, drove a wedge between people and forests.

The Demographic statistics:

  • Tribal community forms 8.6 percent of the country’s populationaccording to the 2011 Census.
  • Central India is home to 80% of the tribal communitiesin the country.
  • Of the 257 Scheduled Tribe districts, 230 (90 percent)are either forests or hilly or dry lands.

Government Initiatives for empowering Tribals:

  • National Forest Policy of 1988: It was in this policy that domestic requirements of local people were explicitly recognized for the very first time.
  • Capacity Building Initiative: It is aimed at empowering tribal Panchayati Raj Institution (PRI) representativesby enhancing their decision-making capabilities at the local government level.
    • Apart from tribal development, it also focuses on constitutional and legal provisions that protect and promote the rights and welfare of the tribal population.
  • 1000 Springs Initiative: The initiative aims at improving access to safe and adequate water for the tribal communities living in difficult and inaccessible parts of rural areas in the country.
    • The initiative will help in harnessing the potential of perennial springs’ water to address the natural scarcity of water in tribal areas.
    • It includes the provision of infrastructure for piped water supplyfor drinking; provision of water for irrigation; community-led total sanitation initiatives; and provision for water for backyard nutrition gardens, generating sustainable livelihood opportunities for the tribal people.

Status of Tribes Communities in India:

The Dhebar Commission constituted in 1973 created a separate category “Primitive Tribal Groups (PTGs)” which was renamed in 2006 as “Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs)”.

  • The most commonly known tribes of India are Gonds, Bhils (or Wheels), Santhal, Munda, Khasi, Garo, Angami, Bhutia, Chenchu, Kodaba, and the Great Andamanese Tribes.
  • Of all these tribes, the Bhil tribal group, as per the 2011 census, is the largest tribein India.
    • It constitutes a staggering 38% of the country’s total scheduled tribal population.
  • The major tribal communities have their roots in Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, parts of Gujarat, Rajasthan, and North-eastern states.

Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs):

  • Some tribal groups that remain more vulnerable among tribal groups are known as PVTGs (Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups).
  • The PVTGs have some unique characteristics such as:
  • Dwindling or stagnant population
  • Extremely low level of literacy
  • Subsistence level of economy
  • Usage of pre-agricultural technology
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