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9th September 2022 (7 Topics)

Queen Elizabeth II, longest-reigning monarch of U.K., dies


Britain’s longest reigning monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, died at the age of 96.


  • Elizabeth II (1926-2022) was the Queen of United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
  • Born on April 21, 1926 in London, she was the elder daughter of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth. 
  • In 2022, Queen Elizabeth II becomes the first British Monarch to reign for 70 years, extending her record as the longest-reigning monarchin British history. 
  • The Queen was known to have stuck to her constitutional role, and while maintaining a deep interest in politics had a reputation for maintaining political neutrality during the seventy plus years on the throne.
  • Plans for the Queen’s death and the accession of Prince Charles (Successor to the throne) are code named as ‘Operation London Bridge’ and ‘Operation Spring Tide’

Operation Unicorn:

It was announced if the Queen died (as happened) in her Balmoral castle which signifies her death.

  • For funeral, protocol is followed and is expected to be held on the tenth day following the Queen’s death.

The Queen’s Aura

  • The Queen has remained a popular figure, not just in Britain but also globally.
  • Queen Elizabeth II was a stateswoman of unmatched dignity and constancy who deepened the bedrock Alliance between the United Kingdom and the United States.
  • She also has built good relations with India and other Countries.

Her Views to India

  • She was the first British monarch to accede to the throne after India's Independence from colonial rule in
  • She had visited to India over the course of her reign – in 1961, 1983 and 1997.
  • In 1961, the Queen and late Prince Phillip toured major cities in India and also visited the Taj Mahal in Agra and paid tribute to Mahatma Gandhi at Raj Ghat in New Delhi.
  • She and her husband later paid a visit to the scene of the 1919 Jallianwala Bagh massacre in Amritsar to place a wreath at the memorial, amid widespread calls for an apology for the thousands killed at the orders of a British General during the Raj era.

India & UK Relations

  • Historical linkage: Nearly 2 million of UK citizens are tied by descent and enduring family links to India.
  • They represent one of the United Kingdom's most dynamic and successful communities.
  • Cooperation: The relations between the two countries are built on strong and deep foundations.
  • Political relations: Politically, relations between India and the UK occur mostly through the multilateral organisations of which both are members, such as the Commonwealth of Nations, the World Trade Organization and the Asian Development Bank.
  • 2017 UK-India Year of Culture: Queen hosted the official launch of the UK India Year of Culture on 27 February 2017 at Buckingham Palace with Indian Finance Minister Aru Jaitley representing Prime Minister Narendra Modi.
  • The British Council worked with the Palace and British-Indian start-up Studio Carrom to project a peacock, India's national bird, onto the facade of Buckingham Palace.



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