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Carbon Footprint for Marine Industry

  • Published
    15th Mar, 2023

According to a research by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research’s (ICAR) Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute (CMFRI), the carbon footprint of the marine fisheries sector in India is much lower than the global figure.

Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute (CMFRI):

  • CMFRI is the largest marine fisheries research institute in India.
  • Established in: 1947
  • Headquarter: Kochi, Kerala.
  • Parent Body: Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR).
  • CMFRI has developed a unique method for estimation of fishery catch called the "Stratified Multistage Random Sampling Method”. With this methodology the Institute is maintaining the National Marine Fisheries Data Centre (NMFDC).

About the study:

  • Objective: This is the assessment of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from total activities in the sector, from pre-harvesting to marketing, by converting it into CO2 equivalent.
  • The study was presented at a review meeting of the fisheries component of the network research project National Innovations in Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA) of the ICAR held in Kochi.
  • Key features:
    • The study was conducted at selected fishing centres at all maritime states of the country, dividing the fishing-related activities into three phases — pre-harvesting, harvesting and post-harvesting.
    • The NICRA research project was aimed at studying the impact of climate change on agriculture including crops, livestock, horticulture and fisheries and to develop and promote climate resilient technologies, thereby addressing vulnerable areas of the country.
  • Findings
    • At 1.32 tonnes of CO2 (carbon dioxide) produced per tonne of fish in India.
    • India’s carbon footprint is much lower than the global figure of more than 2 tonnes of carbon emission per tonne of fish.
    • The CMFRI identified cyclone proneness, flood proneness, shoreline changes, heat waves and sea level rise as major hazards that could affect coastal lives.
  • Works on a Coastal Climate Risk Atlas that marks areas of risk, including hazards and vulnerabilities in all coastal districts in India, are in progress.

India’s Marine sector:

  • The importance and the role of the fisheries sector were officially recognized in India, through the enactment of the ‘Indian Fisheries Act’ in 1897.
  • The first Five-year plan (1951—56) of the Government of India, drew the canvas of the Fisheries sector (both Marine and Inland Fisheries sector).
  • It was followed by the creation of an independent Ministry of Fisheries, Animal Husbandry & Dairying in 2019.

Highlights of the Fisheries Sector:

  • The culture of Pangassius and mono-sex Tilapia, native catfishes, and freshwater prawns are picking up due to culture-based production being adopted at a faster pace.
  • Three Major Carp (IMC) species- Catla, Rohu, and Mrigal together contribute a lion’s share in production.
  • In the shrimp segment, most of the production comes from vannamei.
  • Rainbow trout culture and rehabilitation of native Mahaseer in cold waters of the Himalayan corridor are promising ventures.

Government Policies:

  • Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana (PMMSY):
    • PMMSY is a flagship scheme for focused and sustainable development of the fisheries sector in the country as a part of the Aatmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan.
    • Under PMMSY, over a span of five years (FY 2020-25), an investment worth Rs 20,050 crore has been envisaged for the fisheries sector.
    • PMMSY puts special emphasis on employment generation for SC, ST communities, and women.
  • Livelihood and nutritional support:
    • It has been provided for 13.99 lakh (FY 2020 to date) socio-economically backward active traditional fishers’ families during the seasonal fishing ban/lean period.
    • For safety net, 31.89 lakh fishers have been insured under the Group Accidental Insurance Scheme (GAIS).
    • The insurance premium under GAIS is 100 percent borne by central and state governments.
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