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4th December 2023 (11 Topics)

COP28: Global Stocktake Assessment

Context

At COP28, countries will examine how much progress they have made in curbing global warming — a process called the Global Stocktake, which is happening for the first time — since the Paris Agreement in 2015.

About

COP 28 and Global Warming:

  • The COP28 climate summit in Dubai has brought together representatives from nearly 200 nations, along with business leaders, climate scientists, Indigenous Peoples, journalists, and various experts.
  • Against the backdrop of 2023 set to be the warmest year ever recorded, the summit holds significant importance for assessing global progress in curbing climate change.

Global Stocktake: Evaluating Progress Since Paris Agreement

  • Global Stocktake: The COP28 marks the initiation of the Global Stocktake, a crucial evaluation of the progress made by nations since the Paris Agreement in 2015.
  • Comprehensive assessment: This comprehensive assessment involves governments examining their efforts in curbing global warming, setting the stage for future actions.

Stakes at Hand:

  • Stringent national policies: Countries will need to consider making more stringent national policies, setting ambitious goals, and financially supporting less affluent nations in transitioning to clean, green energy.

The United Nations Climate Change's Perspective: UNCC's Call to Action:

  • United Nations Climate Change (UNCC): The United Nations Climate Change (UNCC) emphasizes the significance of this moment, describing it as a time to "take a long, hard look at the state of our planet and chart a better course for the future."
  • Global collaboration: The UNCC positions COP28 as a critical juncture for global collaboration and decisive climate action.

Five-Year Plan: Evolution from COP21 to COP28

The Paris Agreement's Inception:

  • COP21 in Paris: In 2015, COP21 in Paris marked a landmark shift in global climate efforts.
  • Kyoto Protocol: Unlike the previous Kyoto Protocol, the Paris Agreement included all countries in the fight against the climate crisis, making it mandatory for each nation to set emissions-reduction targets, known as Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs).

Mandate of the Paris Agreement:

  • 2 degrees Celsius: The Paris Agreement set the goal of limiting global warming to below 2 degrees Celsius from the pre-industrial era, with a more ambitious target of staying under 1.5 degrees Celsius to minimize severe climate change impacts.
  • Periodic assessments: This mandate necessitated periodic assessments, with the first scheduled Global Stocktake occurring in 2023 and subsequently every five years.

The Initial Global Stocktake Report and Its Implications

UN's Assessment:

  • Technical report: The UN published a technical report in September 2023 based on the first Global Stocktake.
  • Global community's actions: The findings indicated some progress, but the global community's actions fell short.
  • Need for accelerated approach: The report stressed the need for accelerated implementation, an all-encompassing societal approach, and increased ambition to align with the Paris Agreement goals.

Unveiling Opportunities and Challenges:

  • Good practices and proposals: The emphasis on good practices and proposals to accelerate implementation showcases the ongoing effort to bridge existing gaps and move towards the goals outlined in the Paris Agreement.

Rising Global Temperatures: A Call to Urgent Action

Alarming Temperature Increase:

  • 2 degrees Celsius: Amidst these evaluations and reports, the stark reality remains that the average global temperature has surged by almost 1.2 degrees Celsius since pre-industrial times.
  • Urgency for nations: This underscores the urgency for nations to collectively address climate change and implement measures that align with the goals set in the Paris Agreement.

Way Forward:

  • As governments, experts, and stakeholders convene at COP28, the urgency of the climate crisis is undeniable.
  • The Global Stocktake, a mechanism designed to hold nations accountable, is not just an assessment of progress but a call for collective action.
  • The decisions made at this summit will reverberate in the trajectory of global efforts to combat climate change and shape the planet's future for generations to come.

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