What's New :
Open Session for INTEGRATED PREPARATION for Prelims and Mains. Register Now
Mentorship Sessions(Connect with the faculties and ask all your doubts). Book Now

11th September 2023

Odisha’s Konark Wheel


At the G20 Summit venue in Delhi, the historic Konark Wheel from Odisha’s Sun Temple emerged as a focal point of attention. Prime Minister has selected a wall adorned with a depiction of this ancient architecture as the backdrop for his warm welcome to world leaders.

About Konark Wheel:
  • The Konark Wheel is an integral part of the Sun Temple, dedicated to the sun god ‘Surya’.
  • Resembling a large chariot with 7 horses and 12 pairs of exquisitely decorated wheels.
  • The size of the wheel is of 9 feet 9 inches in diameter and each one of them having 8 wider spokes and 8 thinner spokes.
  • Out of these 24 wheels 6 are in either side of the main temple, 4 wheels are on each side of the Mukhasala and 2 wheels on each side of steps at eastern front.
  • The huge wheels of the Konark Temple are one of the major attractions in the Temple.
  • The wheels of the chariot have been interpreted as the 'Wheel of Life'.
  • They portray the cycle of creation, preservation and achievement of realisation.
  • These 12 pairs of wheels may also possibly represent the 12 zodiac signs.
  • Some also believe that the Wheel of Konark is the same as the Dharmachakra of the Buddhists“The Wheel of Karma, The Wheel of the Law. “

Konark wheels are used as Sun dials in ancient times to know the time of the day.

The Sun Temple:

  • The Sun Temple at Konârak, located on the eastern shores of the Indian subcontinent.
  • It is built in 13th Century by King Narasimhadeva-I (AD 1238-1264).
  • The Sun Temple is the culmination of Kalingan temple architecture, with all its defining elements in complete and perfect form.
  • Components of the Temple:
  • The vimana (principal sanctuary) was surmounted by a high tower with a shikhara (crowning cap), which was razed in the 19th century.
    • To the east, the jahamogana (audience hall) dominates the ruins with its pyramidal mass.
    • Farther to the east, the natmandir (dance hall), today unroofed, rises on a high platform.
    • The Sun Temple is directly associated with the idea and belief of the personification of the Sun God, which is adumbrated in the Vedas and classical texts.

India-Middle East-Europe Economic Corridor (IMEC)


India and Saudi Arabia have joined the European Union and the United States in launching the Partnership for Global Infrastructure and Investment (PGII) and India-Middle East-Europe Economic Corridor.

India-Middle East-Europe Economic Corridor:

  • In a bid to stimulate economic development through enhanced connectivity and economic integration, India, along with other members of the G20, has entered into a historic memorandum of understanding (MoU) to develop an India-Middle East-Europe economic corridor.
  • The project is a part of the Partnership for Global Infrastructure Investment (PGII) — a West-led initiative for funding infrastructure projects across the world.
  • Objective: The corridor aims to provide a reliable and cost-effective ship-to-rail transit network between Asia, Middle East and Europe.
  • Proposals: The corridor will comprise of two separate corridors,
    • The Eastern corridor - will connect India to the Arabian Gulf.
    • The Northern corridor- will connect the Arabian Gulf to Europe.
  • Member Nations: Apart from India, the other participants will include Saudi Arabia, UAE, France, Germany, Italy, USA and the European Union.
  • Components of the project:
    • The arrangement will include a railway route that, upon completion, will provide a reliable and cost-effective cross-border ship-to-rail transit network to supplement existing maritime and road transport routes.
    • This will enable goods and services to transit to, from, and between India, the UAE, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Israel, and Europe.
    • Along the railway track, the members want to lay a cable for clean hydrogen export.
  • Key functions:
    • This corridor will safeguard regional supply chains, boost trade accessibility, and enable a greater emphasis on environmental, social, and governance consequences.
    • It will be designed to increase efficiencies, save costs, promote economic cohesion, create jobs, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, leading to a radical integration of Asia, Europe, and the Middle East.
  • Intended Timeline: As per the MoU, the members intend to meet within the next sixty days to develop and commit to an action plan with relevant timetables.
    • However, although the memorandum sets forth political commitments of its participants, it does not create any rights or obligations under international law, which means that the members are not necessarily bound by it.

The EU, through its Global Gateway programme, has announced to activate 300 billion of investments in critical connectivity projects during the period 2021-2027.

    • It is seen as a counter to China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI).
    • Key for connectivity of Global South.
    • Strengthening supply chains amid Russia-Ukraine War.

Partnership for Global Infrastructure Investment (PGII):

  • The infrastructure plan was first announced in June 2021 during the G7 (or Group of Seven) summit in the UK.
  • The G7 countries include the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the European Union (EU).
  • US President had called it the Build Back Better World (B3W) framework.
  • In 2022, during the G7 summit in Germany, the PGII was officially launched as a joint initiative to help fund infrastructure projects in developing countries through public and private investments.

Similar Initiatives:

  • China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI): It was launched by China in 2013.
  • The BRI consists of two main components:
    • The Silk Road Economic Belt, which is a land-based network connecting China to Europe through Central Asia and the Middle East, and
    • The 21st Century Maritime Silk Road, which is a sea-based network linking China to Southeast Asia, South Asia, Africa, and Europe via the South China Sea and the Indian Ocean.
    • This initiative spans multiple continents, with projects in over 70 countries.
  • India, however, opposed the BRI as it included the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, which connected Kashgar in China with the Gwadar port in Pakistan via Pakistan-occupied Kashmir.

G20 Summit 2023: The New Delhi Declaration


The G-20 Leader's New Delhi Declaration acknowledges the substantial financial requirements of 5.8-5.9 trillion dollars for developing countries before 2030 and 4 trillion dollars annually for clean energy to achieve net-zero emissions by 2050.

Key Highlights of New Delhi Declaration:

  • G-20 Welcomes ‘African Union’: The Group of 20 (G-20) annual summit welcomed the African Union as a member, marking an important development in global economic cooperation.
  • Avoiding Condemnation of Russia: The summit did not explicitly condemn Russia for its war in Ukraine but called on all states to refrain from using force to seize territory.
  • UN Charter Principles: The G-20 emphasized the importance of abiding by the principles of the United Nations Charter and declared the use or threat of nuclear weapons as 'inadmissible.'
  • Humanitarian Aid for Ukraine: The declaration urged Russia and Ukraine to ensure the immediate and unhindered delivery of essential goods, including grains and fertilizers, to meet the demands of developing and least developed countries, particularly in Africa.
  • Protection of Food and Energy Infrastructure: The G-20 called for a halt to military destruction and attacks on food and energy infrastructure and expressed concerns about high volatility in food and energy markets.
  • Phasedown of Coal: Member countries committed to a "phasedown" of coal usage in line with their national circumstances. They also pledged to triple renewable energy sources by 2030.
  • Climate Finance: Developing countries require $5.8 to $5.9 trillion in the pre-2030 period to meet their climate goals. The world needs an additional $4 trillion annually by 2030 to achieve the net-zero carbon emission goals by 2050.
  • Financial Reforms: The New Delhi Declaration called for reforms in international financial institutions, addressing debt vulnerabilities in low and middle-income countries, and initiating the exchange of tax-relevant information on crypto assets by 2027.
    • It stressed the importance of well-calibrated monetary, fiscal, financial, and structural policies to promote growth, reduce inequalities, and maintain economic stability.
  • Geopolitical Diplomacy: The declaration's avoidance of direct condemnation of Russia for the war in Ukraine is notable. It reflects the complex geopolitical dynamics at play and the G-20's effort to maintain a diplomatic stance without escalating tensions.
  • Commitment to Peace and Stability: The call for refraining from using force to seize territory and the designation of the use or threat of nuclear weapons as 'inadmissible' underscores the G-20's commitment to global peace and stability.
  • Climate Action and Renewable Energy: The G-20's commitment to a phasedown of coal and a significant increase in renewable energy sources aligns with global efforts to combat climate change.

Vidya Samiksha Kendras


Under the National Digital Education Architecture (NDEAR), the Ministry of Education is pushing States to open Vidya Samiksha Kendras (VSKs).

About the initiative:
  • Vidya Samiksha Kendras (VSKs) are an open-source platform run on C-Qube software to collect data from all schemes run by the Ministry of Education (MoE).
  • Source of Data:
  • This will include regularly updated data from the PM-POSHAN mid-day meal programmes; teacher training data from National Initiative for School Heads’ and Teachers’ Holistic Advancement portal; textbook content from Digital Infrastructure for Knowledge Sharing; school dropout and attendance-related data on Unified District Information System for Education (UDISE+); students’ learning outcomes from National Achievement Survey; and Performance Grading Index which evaluates school education system at the State/U.T. level.
  • Implementation: ‘EkStep Foundation’, a non-profit organisation is on board in an advisory role for implementing the VSK project.
  • Need of such an initiative:
    • Currently the data are fed on the platform manually, and available in downloadable Excel format for anyone to access and use, to visualise and analyse trends.
    • VSK will shift from manual mode to automatic mode once the Application Programming Interface (API) integration process is complete.
  • Fund allocation: The Centre has allocated funds ranging from 2 to Rs. 5 crore to each State for adopting and establishing VSKs that include pre-configured open-source hardware and software as well as hiring human resources.

States like Gujarat, Maharashtra, Odisha, and Jharkhand have already begun the process of setting up the tech platform.

  • Significance: The idea of developing VSKs is allow mapping of the school location layer with the population layer to assess the Gross Access Ratio, which can help plan for new schools, or for industry clusters to understand skilling requirements of the area, and help plan higher educational institutions based on demand and future scenarios.

National Digital Education Architecture (NDEAR):

NDEAR is an architectural blueprint for the educational ecosystem in the country that defines a set of principles, standards and specifications, guidelines and policies to strengthen the digital infrastructure for education.

  • It is under the Ministry of Education in collaboration with the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology.
  • Under this, the government will not be building technology solutions for the education sector but will act as an enabler, offering a framework wherein technology can be developed and built by anyone.
  • It promotes a ‘digital first’ approach, supporting teaching and learning activities, and facilitating educational planning as well as governance and administrative activities.
  • It aims at creating a digital foundation driving towards autonomy and self-governance of all parties involved, particularly states and the Centre.
  • NDEAR’s institutional structure, date, governance framework and technology will benefit both the student and the teacher community alike.
  • Solutions that adhere to NDEAR frameworks and standards would be considered NDEAR-compliant.
  • The framework implies that systems and solutions that worked in one state can be shared across the country and adapted in other parts. Systems that are not NDEAR-compliant would work in silos not being able to be leveraged by others.
  • NDEAR is not a centrally-controlled framework and it is inherently federated to ensure the autonomy of all stakeholders including the states.
  • It is to be noted that NDEAR is not a platform, technology software or solution, application or portal, but an architectural blueprint.

Global approach to regulate cryptocurrencies


The global push for a clear policy on crypto assets has gained momentum under the Indian presidency, and a global consensus is emerging on the same.

  • Recently, a paper prepared by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the Financial Stability Board (FSB), at the request of the Indian G20 Presidency, has suggested that an outright ban on cryptocurrencies.
  • Blanket bans that make all crypto-asset activities (e.g., trading and mining) illegal can be costly and technically demanding to enforce.
  • They also tend to increase the incentives for circumvention due to the inherent borderless nature of crypto- assets, resulting in potentially heightened financial integrity risks, and can also create inefficiencies.

The consensus at New Delhi:

  • Under the Finance Track of India’s G-20 presidency, a co-ordinated global approach was discussed for regulating cryptocurrencies and strengthening multilateral development banks’ (MDBs) lending capacity.
  • The New Delhi Declaration adopted by the G-20 leaders noted that they “continue to closely monitor the risks of the fast-paced developments in the crypto-asset ecosystem”.
  • It emphasized to endorse the Financial Stability Board’s (FSB’s) recommendations for the regulation, supervision and oversight of crypto-assets activities and markets and of global stablecoin arrangements.
  • This will help in use of digital public infrastructure like the India Stack to expand financial inclusion around the world.
  • However, it does not outright impose any ban on crypto currencies.

Need for regulation:

  • To address risks to financial integrity and mitigate criminal and terrorist misuse of the crypto-assets sector, jurisdictions should implement the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) anti-money laundering and counter-terrorist financing (AML/CFT) standards that apply to virtual assets (VAs) and virtual asset service providers (VASPs).

About Cryptocurrencies:

  • Cryptocurrencies are digital or virtual currencies that use cryptography for security.
  • They exist solely in electronic form and have no physical counterpart like paper money or coins.
  • Most cryptocurrencies operate on decentralized networks, typically based on blockchain technology.
    • This means they are not controlled by a single central authority, such as a government or central bank.
    • Instead, they rely on a distributed ledger maintained by a network of nodes (computers).

Regulation of cryptocurrency

  • Unlike the U.S. Dollar or the Euro, there is no central authority that manages and maintains the value of a cryptocurrency.
  • Instead, these tasks are broadly distributed among a cryptocurrency’s users via the internet.



  • Bypassing fees and having privacy
  • Good investment opportunity
  • Less chance of hyperinflation



  • Extreme volatile
  • Uncertainty
  • Security issue
  • Taxable profits
  • Less mobility of money

Global Biofuels Alliance (GBA)


The Global Biofuels Alliance (GBA) has been announced by India on the sidelines of the G20 Summit.

About Global Biofuel Alliance (GBA):

  • GBA is an India-led Initiative to develop an alliance of Governments, International organizations and Industry to facilitate adoption of biofuels.
  • Objective: Bringing together the biggest consumers and producers of biofuels to drive biofuels development and deployment, the initiative aims to position biofuels as a key to energy transition and contribute to jobs and economic growth.
  • Joining Members: 19 countries and 12 international organisations have already agreed to join.
  • G20 countries (07) supporting GBA: Argentina, Brazil, Canada, India, Italy, South Africa, USA
  • G20 Invitee Countries (04) supporting GBA: Bangladesh, Singapore, Mauritius, UAE
    • Non G20 (08) supporting GBA: Iceland, Kenya, Guyana, Paraguay, Seychelles, Sri Lanka, and Uganda have agreed to be initiating members of GBA, and Finland.
    • International organizations: World Bank, Asian Development Bank, World Economic Forum, World LPG Organization, UN Energy for All, UNIDO, Biofutures Platform, International Civil Aviation Organization, International Energy Agency, International Energy Forum, International Renewable Energy Agency, World Biogas Association.
  • Significance:
    • GBA Members constitute major producers and consumers of biofuels.
    • USA (52%), Brazil (30%) and India (3%), contribute about 85% share in production and about 81% in consumption of ethanol.
  • Functions:
    • GBA will support worldwide development and deployment of sustainable biofuels by offering capacity-building exercises across the value chain, technical support for national programs and promoting policy lessons-sharing.
    • It will facilitate mobilizing a virtual marketplace to assist industries, countries, ecosystem players and key stakeholders in mapping demand and supply, as well as connecting technology providers to end users.
    • It will also facilitate development, adoption and implementation of internationally recognized standards, codes, sustainability principles and regulations to incentivize biofuels adoption and trade.

India’s Approach:

  • The alliance will focus on collaboration and will provide additional opportunities to Indian industries in the form of exporting technology and exporting equipment.
  • It will help accelerate India’s existing biofuels programs such as PM-JIVANYojna, SATAT, and GOBARdhan scheme, thereby contributing to increased farmers’ income, creating jobs and overall development of the Indian ecosystem.

What are Biofuels?

  • Biofuels are liquid fuels produced from renewable biological sources, including plants and algae.
  • Biofuels offer a solution to one of the challenges of solar, wind, and other alternative energy sources.

Advantages of Biofuels

  • Availability: since biofuels only require biomass for their production, which is ubiquitous, biofuels are easy to produce.
  • Reduction in waste: biofuels can also be produced using waste materials such as municipal sewage waste, inedible parts of the crops. This effectively aids in the reduction of waste.
  • Reduce dependency on crude oil and non-renewable sources of fuels.
  • Economic development: the production of biofuels can be a labour-intensive process thus resulting in the creation of jobs. This can provide a source of employment. It can aid in the development of rural areas when the second generation biofuel production units are set up there.

Disadvantages of Biofuels

  • Low Efficiency: The efficiency of biofuels is much lesser compared to fossil fuels, as fossil fuels produce more energy on burning.
  • Loss of biodiversity: the genetically modified crops used for the production of fourth-generation biofuels could result in a loss of biodiversity.
  • Less availability of space: production of biofuels requires land, and in the case of second-generation biofuels, the crops used are mostly non-food crops, thus the production of biofuels requires a lot of space.
  • Food shortage: The first generation biofuels make use of food sources and there is an imminent threat of facing food shortage if the production of biofuels is carried out extensively.
  • Water usage: Massive quantities of water are required for proper irrigation of biofuel crops as well as to manufacture the fuel, which could strain local and regional water resources. This is, however, not the problem in case of the third generation biofuel.

National Biofuel Policy

  • The policy is aimed at taking forward the indicative target of achieving 20% blending of biofuels with fossil-based fuels by 2030.
  • The policy intends to ensure the adequate and sustained availability of domestic feedstock for biofuel production, increasing farmers’ income, import reduction, employment generation and waste to wealth creation.
  • This policy clearly exhibits the Centre’s push towards strengthening the energy infrastructure of the country while promoting the agenda of sustainability.

Short News Article

Geography (GS-I)

Morocco quake

Morocco witnessed one of the deadliest earthquakes of about 6.8 Magnitude recently.


  • The earthquake's epicentre was located 72 km (45 miles) southwest of Marrakech, a city renowned for its historical and architectural treasures.
  • The Moroccan government has set up a fund for those affected by the disaster and is providing relief in the form of water, food, tents, and blankets.
  • Reports have confirmed the collapse of a historically important 12th-century mosque.
  • Parts of Marrakech’s old city, a UNESCO World Heritage site, have also been damaged.

About the location:

  • Morocco is a country located in North Africa, known for its remarkable geographical diversity.
  • It features a diverse landscape that includes the Atlas Mountains, Sahara Desert, fertile plains, and a long coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.

Polity and Governance (GS-II)

Badai Bazaar

Malappuram Municipality of Kerala opens its first ‘Badai Bazaar’, a centre for elderly serving free of cost.


  • The word badai means bragging or boasting in Malayalam slang.
  • As the name suggests, Badai Bazaars are meant to be spaces to while away their time chatting and bragging.
  • The Badai Bazaar will remain open for people above 60 years of age from 6 a.m. to 7 p.m.
  • Newspapers, magazines, and television are being sponsored by business establishments.
  • Each centre will be managed by a committee of senior citizens who use them. Several programmes, including medical checkups and excursions, are in store for those reaching Badai Bazaars.

Environment (GS-III)

First herpetofaunal survey

As many as 67 species of reptiles and 59 species of amphibians were identified in the first herpetofaunal survey that concluded recently in the South Wayanad Forest Division.

Herpetology is the branch of zoology concerned with the study of amphibians (including frogs, toads, salamanders, newts, and caecilians (gymnophiona)) and reptiles (including snakes, lizards, amphisbaenids, turtles, terrapins, tortoises, and crocodilians.

Highlights of the survey:

  • About: The five-day programme was organised jointly by the Forest department, South Wayanad Forest Development Agency, and Aranyakam Nature Foundation.
  • Species found:
    • The important amphibian species recorded during the survey include Starry Night Frog, bearing a constellation of blue dots on its obsidian body; Miniature Night Frog, the tiniest frog in the country; and endangered species such as Malabar Torrent Toad and Red Stream Toad.
    • The survey commenced with the recording of the Green Tree Frog and culminated with a compendium of 59 amphibians, of which over 80% are uniquely found in the Western Ghats.
    • Of the 67 reptile species sighted, 21 are unique to the Western Ghats.
  • Other species:
    • Wayanad Dravidogecko, Nilgiri Spiny Lizard, and the Nilgiri Forest Lizard were found.

Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary:

  • Located in Kerala, Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary (WWS) is an integral part of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve.
  • It was established in 1973.
  • Kabini River (a tributary of Cauvery River) flows through the sanctuary.


New currency, next steps


Recently, at G20 summit, leaders found ways for regulating crypto currencies across globe. Global collaboration and cooperation on regulation of crypto-assets is needed and is a step forward.

Cryptocurrency Regulation and Bans

  • Varied Global Approaches: Around the world, countries are dealing with cryptocurrencies differently. Some have strict rules, while others have outright bans. In India, our approach has been mixed.
  • Importance of Global Collaboration: Cryptocurrencies has no limited borders. This can increase the risk of financial wrongdoing.
  • International Support: The International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the Financial Stability Board (FSB) have highlighted the need for a comprehensive global response to tackle the risks of cryptocurrencies to financial stability

Challenges of Banning Cryptocurrencies

  • Complex Decision-Making: Enforcing a ban on crypto can be difficult, and it might lead to crypto activities moving to other countries with more lenient rules. This can also make it harder to monitor these activities and ensure they follow legal standards.
  • Increased Risks: Banning cryptocurrencies could result in these transactions happening outside of a country's view, raising concerns about financial integrity and security.
  • Implementing Standards: The IMF-FSB paper stresses the need to implement international standards for anti-money laundering and counter-terrorist financing that apply to cryptocurrencies and their service providers.

Ask for Global Coordination

  • Future Discussions: Finance ministers and central bank governors from G20 countries will meet in October to discuss the roadmap outlined in the IMF-FSB paper. This is a positive step, recognizing that cryptocurrencies are a global issue.
  • Balancing Act: As we navigate the world of cryptocurrencies, we must find a balance between allowing innovation and ensuring financial stability and security.
  • Way forward: Instead, working together on a global scale, implementing standards, and regulating the crypto industry may offer a more effective way to manage this evolving financial landscape.
You must be logged in to get greater insights.


Secure and fair


India’s efforts to regulate insidious e-commerce trade practices, known as dark patterns, are a welcome step, and long overdue.

Regulating Dark Patterns in E-commerce

  • Understanding Dark Patterns: India's effort to regulate e-commerce dark patterns is vital. These misleading tactics exploit users, creating needed consumer protection.
  • Growing Awareness: Global awareness of dark patterns leads to government action. Europe and the U.S. issue guidelines; India drafts rules against misleading e-commerce practices.
  • International collaboration: Federal Trade Commission warned about sophisticated dark patterns.

The Importance of Consumer Protection

  • Shifting Focus to Consumers: India's efforts in regulating e-commerce focused on tax collection and protecting traditional merchants. However, there is now a growing recognition of the need to protect consumers in the digital landscape.
  • The Power of Tech Giants: The Fourth Industrial Revolution era, tech giants have collected vast amounts of user data and made immense profits. These profits often surpass the GDP of entire nations.
  • Towards Data Privacy: The technology advances, safeguarding privacy and consumer interests become paramount. India's new focus on consumer protection and data privacy is a significant step in the right direction.

Ensuring a Safer Digital Environment:

  • Boosting User Confidence: Regulating dark patterns and protecting consumer interests should boost user confidence in online shopping and social media platform.
  • The Need for a Fair Digital Space: In an age where digital technology shapes our lives, creating a fair, safe, and free digital environment is essential. India's efforts to regulate e-commerce trade practices are part of this larger goal.
  • Safeguarding privacy: ensuring that online businesses play by fair rules benefits everyone in the digital space.
You must be logged in to get greater insights.


Stocktaking the calamity


The world needs genuine breakthroughs in climate talks.

Climate Crisis at the G-20 Summit

  • Climate Report and the G-20 Agenda: The United Nations' Global Stocktake report reminded the world of the urgent need to address greenhouse gas emissions and the targets set in the 2015 Paris Agreement to limit global temperature rise.
  • The Stocktake's Message: It underscores that despite some progress, current emissions trends exceed the Paris Agreement's limits.
  • Reality Check: The Leader's Declaration at the G-20 summit recognized the substantial financial requirements for developing countries and clean energy technologies.

The Urgent Need for Action

  • Emission Gaps and Renewable Energy: The Stocktake report reveals that there are significant gaps in meeting emission reduction targets aligned with limiting global warming to 1.5°C.
  • Focus on energy sources: Achieving these goals demands rapid expansion of renewable energy resources and a move away from fossil fuels like coal, oil, and natural gas.
  • Financial Commitments: The G-20 Leader's Declaration acknowledged the need for substantial financial commitments to support clean energy and developing nations.

The Stocktake's Crucial Role

  • Negotiating Breakthroughs: The Global Stocktake report should not be dismissed as a technical document. Instead, it should form the foundation of negotiations during upcoming climate talks.
  • Responsibilities of major economies: The report underscores the urgent need for collective action and highlights the responsibility of major economies to lead the transition to a sustainable and clean energy future.
  • An urgent call: The report calls for more ambitious actions, including achieving net-zero CO2 emissions by 2050, and emphasizes the importance of renewable energy and reducing reliance on fossil fuels.
You must be logged in to get greater insights.


Elephant Jatakas with a timeless message


In Indian tradition, elephants are very important and respected animals. Some stories in Indian culture talk about the concept of the "Shadripu," which means the six inner enemies or negative qualities that humans should overcome.

The Significance of Elephant Tales

  • Teaching Valuable Life Lessons: The recurring theme of the "Shadripu," or six inner enemies, is a central focus in these narratives, offering insights into human behavior and the path to personal growth.
  • Symbolism of Elephants: By using elephants as protagonists in these stories, ancient storytellers effectively communicated profound teachings, making them relatable and memorable to their audience.
  • Universal Relevance: The themes of forgiveness, the impact of external influences, and the importance of gratitude resonate with people of all backgrounds, emphasizing the enduring power and imparting valuable moral and ethical principles.

Lessons from Elephant Narratives

  • Forgiveness and Letting Go: The story of Chaddanta, the elephant king, teaches us the significance of forgiveness. Holding onto anger and resentment can lead to a cycle of negative consequences.
  • Influence of Surroundings: Mahilamukha's transformation from a gentle elephant to a violent one illustrates the profound impact of our surroundings and the company we keep.
  • Gratitude and Trust: Silava's compassionate nature and subsequent betrayal by a man he helped underscore the value of gratitude and trust in our relationships.

Application in Modern Life

  • Relevance in Contemporary Society: In an era marked by stress, conflict, and moral dilemmas, the lessons of forgiveness, the impact of external influences, and the importance of gratitude are as pertinent as ever.
  • Education and Moral Development: By introducing students to these timeless narratives, educators can instill values such as forgiveness, self-awareness, and empathy.
  • Cultural Heritage and Global Understanding: In a globalized world, such narratives bridge cultural gaps and promote mutual respect and harmony among diverse communities.
You must be logged in to get greater insights.


QUIZ - 11th September 2023
GS Classes 2024 GS Classes 2024 GS Classes 2024 UPSC Study Material

Verifying, please be patient.

Enquire Now