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2nd April 2024 (14 Topics)

2nd April 2024

QUIZ - 2nd April 2024

5 Questions

5 Minutes


The IMD has issued an orange alert in West Bengal and the northeastern regions anticipating heavy rainfall. There is formation of a cyclonic circulation over northeastern Assam. Additionally, the influx of humid winds from the Bay of Bengal is saturating the northern and northeastern regions of the country with moisture.

1: Dimension-Reason behind the changing rainfall pattern

  • Global warming:Global warming leads to a near-term collapse of the ocean's thermohaline circulation (global ocean circulation pattern). 
  • Due to this collapse of thermohaline circulation, warm surface waters move from the tropics to the North Atlanticand extra-warm water surfaces in the Pacific Ocean surrounding the equator.
  • Thus, Western Europe, some parts of Asia, and many parts of the Americas get warmer than normal, and some parts of Europe get cooler rapidly.
    • El Niño and La Niña are examples of this.
  • This latest deviant trend generates dramatic weather impacts, such as:
    • rapid cooling in some parts of the world
    • greatly diminished rainfall in agricultural and urban areas
  • Shift in global wind pattern:UNESCO and other studies found that changes in rainfall pattern could be attributed to the shifts in global wind pattern. These shifts are due to the changes in the ocean surface temperature.
  • Human activity:Effect of human activity on the surface vegetation is also causing rainfall pattern variation.
  • Deforestation:Widespread deforestation in parts of Africa and Asia is causing scarce rainfall and subsequent drought.
  • Triggered cyclogenesis process: The cyclone hotspot districts - Puri, Chennai, Nellore, North 24 Parganas, Ganjam, Cuttack, East Godavari, and Srikakulum – were concentrated along the eastern coastline. The east coast’s warming regional microclimate, land-use change, and degrading forest have triggered the region's cyclogenesis process.

2: Dimension- Government mechanism for preparedness to reduce the risk during such events

  • The government employs early warning systems, disaster management plans, resilient infrastructure, public awareness campaigns, coordination between agencies, specialized response teams, and community engagement to prepare for and mitigate risks during heavy rain and sudden storms.
  • More specifically, the plans range from national disaster plans to the state and district disaster plans from a DRR purview.
  • Similarly, for climate actions, there is
    • NAPCC (National Action Plan on Climate Change) at the national level
    • SAPCC (State Action Plan on Climate Change) at the state level

Fact Box: IMD’s Colour Alerts

  • When it comes to rainfall alerts, IMD issues four colour codes:
    • Green code denotes less than 64 mm of rain in 24 hours.
    • Yellow alert is issued if the expected rainfall ranges between 64.5 mm and 115. 5 mm.
    • Orange alert is issued when rainfall totals between 115.6 and 204.4 mm in a single day
    • Red alert is issued when rainfall totals exceed 204.5 mm in a 24-hour period.


  • Geography: Discuss the meaning of colour-coded weather warnings for cyclone-prone areas given by the India Meteorological Department. (UPSC 2022)
  • Environment: The frequency of urban floods due to high-intensity rainfall is increasing over the years. Discussing the reason for urban floods, highlight the mechanism for preparedness to reduce the risk during such events. (UPSC 2016)


From East to West, India is spearheading major transnational transport corridors that will eventually link the Atlantic to the Pacific via Asia.

1: Dimension- India’s push for transnational transport corridor

India is making big push mainly for the following corridor:

  • India-Middle East-Europe Economic Corridor (IMEC): IMEC aims to connect India to Europe via the Arabian Peninsula through rail and sea links
  • International North-South Transport Corridor (INSTC): INSTC spans 7,200 kilometres, encompassing ship, rail, and road routes connecting India through Iran and Central Asia to Russia.
  • India-Myanmar-Thailand Trilateral Highway: It will connect the Indian city of Moreh in Manipur to Thailand's Mae Sot via Myanmar.
  • Chennai-Vladivostok routeto the East: The corridor holds promise for India’s connectivity with the Russian Far East. 

2: Dimension- Need at global level:

  • Filling up infrastructure gap: The G7 recognised this infrastructure gap in 2021 when it announced the Build Back Better World (B3W). The B3W aimed tobridge the USD 40 trillion infrastructure gap in the developing world and offer an alternative to the BRI. 
  • Alternate routes: Whether Houthi attacks in the Red Sea or the 2021 Suez Canal blockage that halted global shipping for six days, countries have been exploring safe and alternate routes for goods transit. 
  • Need of investment: The world is at a place now where investments are more critical than ever.

3: Dimension- Significance of these transport corridors for India

  • Strategic alliance: These transport corridors as necessary to meet its fast-paced economic growth and as a tool to nurture strategic alliances. 
  • Land-based connectivity: There is a need for lateral “land-based” connectivity in the Indian Ocean, thus need of India-Myanmar-Thailand (IMT) trilateral highway arises.


What is the significance of Industrial Corridors in India? Identifying industrial corridors, explain their main characteristics.  (UPSC 2018)


India wants to be the top manufacturer in Asia as companies shift away from China, but first it needs to lower taxes and improve supply chain efficiency if it wants to dethrone Vietnam.

Economies shifting away from China

  • Side-lining China: The U.S. has pursued a “friendshoring” agenda as competition with China increases.
    • The US administration has encouraged American companies to move electronics and technology manufacturing operations out of China and into friendlier countries, particularly Vietnam and India in Asia-Pacific.
  • Interesting alternative: India and Vietnam are attractive manufacturing alternatives for foreign investors and companies, due in part to low labor costs.

Why Vietnam has an upper hand?

  • Vietnam is still way ahead with 2023 exports totalling USD 96.99 billion, compared with India’s USD 75.65 billion
  • Vietnam has been known for their ability to manufacture electronics. India is just getting into that game.
  • While India’s relationship with the U.S. has warmed recently, Vietnam has had a trade and investment deal with Washington since 2007.
  • Vietnam has a more simple proposition compared with India, which has “29 states and every state has a policy which may be different.”

What factors will move the needle” for India”?

  • India needs to solve the following problems to be on par or even overtake Vietnam’s manufacturing strength:
    • Lowering import taxes: India’s import taxes were intended to protect domestic manufacturers, but lowering those duties will be part of the government’s efforts to attract foreign firms to manufacture goods within the country.
    • Improving supply chain efficiency: India’s infrastructure is still lacking, leading to lengthy shipment and road delivery times. Improving efficiency is the key.


India's economic growth, though robust overall, is marked by significant disparities, particularly evident in the lagging performance of rural areas amid the pandemic and adverse weather conditions.

1: Dimension- Economic Growth Disparity:

  • Fast Economic Growth: India's economy is experiencing rapid growth, outpacing many other large economies globally, showcasing its resilience and potential for development.
  • Rural Lag: Despite overall growth, rural India has not experienced commensurate progress, highlighting a disparity between urban and rural economic trajectories.
  • Impact of Pandemic: The COVID-19 pandemic exacerbated rural-urban economic disparities, with rural demand severely affected by lockdowns and economic disruptions.

2: Dimension- Rural Challenges and Setbacks:

  • Pandemic Fallout: Rural areas faced significant setbacks during the pandemic, with disruptions to livelihoods and economic activities exacerbating existing economic disparities.
  • Weather Conditions: Poor weather conditions further compounded the challenges faced by rural India, contributing to a decline in rural demand and exacerbating economic disparities.
  • Need for Addressing Disparities: The widening gap between urban and rural economic growth underscores the importance of targeted policies and initiatives to uplift rural communities and ensure inclusive economic development.

3: Dimension- Policy Implications and Future Prospects:

  • Policy Focus on Inclusive Growth: There is a growing recognition of the need to address rural disparities through targeted policies and initiatives aimed at fostering inclusive economic growth.
  • Recovery Strategies: Efforts to revitalize rural economies and promote rural development are essential for India's overall economic recovery and long-term sustainable growth.
  • Building Resilience: Enhancing the resilience of rural communities to economic shocks and adverse weather conditions is crucial for achieving broad-based economic growth and ensuring socio-economic stability.


The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) celebrates its 90th anniversary, prompting reflections on its evolution and challenges ahead.

1: Dimension- Historical Evolution and Challenges:

  • Significant Legacy: Established in 1935, the RBI is among the oldest central banks in developing countries, witnessing India's transition from pre- to post-independence eras and navigating various economic shifts.
  • Management of Transitions: Over its existence, the RBI has adeptly managed transitions from planned economies to market-oriented structures and now towards an increasingly digital economy, learning from past experiences and adapting to new challenges.
  • Tackling Economic Disruptions: Throughout its history, the RBI has confronted significant economic disruptions, including the global financial crisis, demonetization, and the COVID-19 pandemic, while also addressing issues like the banking sector's bad loan crisis.

2: Dimension- Recent Achievements and Future Challenges:

  • Resolution of Bad Loans: With proactive measures like the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC) framework and capital infusion, the RBI has successfully tackled the problem of bad loans, reducing the non-performing asset (NPA) ratio significantly and fostering healthy credit growth.
  • Adoption of Inflation Targeting: The formal adoption of inflation targeting by the RBI has helped in keeping inflation in check and anchoring inflation expectations, despite occasional disruptions due to external factors like the pandemic.
  • Technological Innovations: Embracing technological advancements, the RBI has revolutionized the payments ecosystem through initiatives like the Unified Payments Interface (UPI), laying the groundwork for further digital transformation and innovation.

Mains Question:

Discuss the evolution and challenges faced by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) over its 90-year history. Analyze its role in navigating economic transitions, addressing disruptions, and adopting technological innovations, while outlining future challenges and prospects for India's central banking system.


Russia’s war in Ukraine and the resulting halt to western collaboration with Russia, now stifles climate research in the Arctic to such an extent that it may soon be impossible for scientists to predict future climate change in the Arctic, which would also weaken predictions of climate change in the rest of the world.

1: Dimension- Impact of the loss of data

  • No data for mitigation: With this, the ability to initiate well-informed management and conservation efforts, which would help mitigate some of the negative consequences and risks exposed by climate change, are greatly reduced.
  • Increased uncertainty: The lack of insight into this particular section of the Arctic will almost double the statistical uncertainty of central parts of Arctic climate research.
  • Negative impact of established research: It affects eight key components of the so called Earth System Models, where years of observations of temperatures, rain and snowfall are combined with factors such as carbon exchange between plants and atmosphere and emissions of CO2.
  • Loss of insight into emission: It leads to the loss of insight into emissions of CO2 and methane from the permafrost in Siberia.
    • The thaw of the permafrost may cause CO2 and methane to develop and escape from layers of up to 90 meters of frozen biomass consisting of decomposed dead plants and animals, much of which has been frozen since the latest ice-ages.
    • The scientists call this biomass yedoma; a Russian term as Russia is the epicenter of this phenomena.

2: Dimension- The Ticking Bomb

  • Russia accounts for almost half the land in the Arctic and several of the ecosystems in this part of the Arctic are unique. Arctic hold some 1700 gigaton of CO2 or about double the amount already present in the atmosphere.
  • Global temperatures are rising, but temperatures in the Arctic region are rising even faster.
  • The melting permafrost and rising sea-levels can have devastating effects on local ecosystems as well as the climate.

Fact Box

Location of Research Station

  • Nearly one third of the 60 stations they selected were located in Russia, and all were above 59 degrees north latitude, just below Greenland’s southern tip. 
  • Half of the research stations in Russia are in the boreal zone. The boreal forest uptakes a substantial amount of carbon, carbon that is accumulated as biomass and soil organic carbon.
  • The researchers excluded stations located on Greenland’s ice sheet, however, because it is not a typical terrestrial ecosystem.
  • India has had a research base in the Arctic since 2008 and also has two observatories in the region.
  • The country presently has a single station, Himadri, in Ny-Alesund, Svalbard, a Norwegian archipelago, where research personnel are usually present for 180 days.
  • Before the war, 21 Russian research stations shared their data with the international consortium INTERACT.
  • INTERACT is a scientific collaboration between the eight Arctic countries.

Arctic region

  • The region surrounding the North Pole consists of a large ocean surrounded by land.
  • This ocean, called the Arctic Ocean, is like no other ocean on Earth; and because of its special location and climate, the lands that surround it are unique.
  • The Arctic region covers parts of eight countries: Canada, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia, and the United States.


On April 1, Odisha Day, or Utkala Dibasa, is celebrated to commemorate the formation of the state of Odisha.

Utkal Divas History

  • Utkal Divas, also known as Odisha Day, is celebrated annually to mark the formation of the state of Odisha on April 1, 1936.
  • The new province of Odisha was formed after people’s continued struggle, which finally paid off on April 1, 1936.
  • This day marks the separation of Odisha from the combined Bihar and Orissa province during British rule in India.
  • Sir John Hubbak was the first governor of the state.
  • The state was originally called Orissa but the Lok Sabha passed the Orissa Bill, and Constitution Bill (113rd amendment), in March 2011 to rename it Odisha.
  • Odisha Day, also known as Vishuva Milan, is observed as a restricted holiday in the state.

Fact Box: Formation of States

  • Article 3 of the Constitution; explicitly lays down a procedure to alter the area, boundaries, or name of a state.
  • Four-step procedure Article 3 provides the following procedure:
    • Presidential reference is sent to State Assembly
    • After presidential reference, a resolution is tabled and passed in Assembly
    • Assembly has to pass a Bill creating the new State/States
    • A separate Bill has to be ratified by Parliament


The Kodaikanal Solar Observatory (KSO) turned 125 this year.


  • The Kodaikanal Solar Observatory (KSO) is a solar observatory owned and operated by the Indian Institute of Astrophysics, located in Kodaikanal, Tamil Nadu. 
  • The Kodaikanal Solar Observatory is a pioneering institution for solar physics.
  • Evershed Effect: Its earliest claim to fame lies, in part, with the late John Evershed, an English astronomer who first observed the flow of gases across sunspots from here in 1909. This phenomenon was christened the Evershed Effect.
  • The sun has been studied over the last few centuries for various reasons, including
    • Solar eclipses
    • Sunspots –cooler regions on the sun’s surface that emit electromagnetic radiation
    • Solar flares, which affect the earth’s atmosphere

Fact Box:

  • Sunspots are areas that appear dark on the surface of the Sun. They appear dark because they are cooler than other parts of the Sun's surface. 
  • Solar eclipse happens when, at just the right moment, the Moon passes between the Sun and Earth.
  • Solar storms are magnetic plasma ejected at great speed from the solar surface. They occur during the release of magnetic energy associated with sunspots (‘dark’ regions on the Sun that are cooler than the surrounding photosphere), and can last for a few minutes or hours. 


To combat cyber scams, like juice jacking, targeting public USB charging stations, citizens are advised to prioritize safety measures like using personal charging cables, implementing device security.

What is juice jacking scam?

  • Termed "juice-jacking," is a type of cyberattack where cybercriminals use public charging stations or compromised USB ports to install malware or steal data from smartphones, tablets, or other electronic devices while they are being charged.
  • This insidious technique enables hackers to clandestinely pilfer sensitive data or implant malicious software onto the devices of unsuspecting users. 


As per a recent finding, it was revealed that their Hatchlings use a temporary "egg tooth" or carbuncle to break open the shell.


About the Species

  • They are the smallest and most abundant of all sea turtles found in the world.
  • It gets its name from the olive green colouration of its carapace (shell).
  • Scientific Name: Lepidochelys olivacea
  • They are best known for their unique mass nesting, called Arribada, where thousands of females come together on the same beach to lay eggs.
  • Distribution:
    • They are mainly found in the warm waters of the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans.
    • Odisha’s Gahirmatha Marine Sanctuary is known as the world’s largest rookery (a colony of breeding animals) of sea turtles.
  • Features:
    • An adult typically measures between 62 and 70 cm in length and weighs about 35-45 kg.
    • They have one to two visible claws on each of their paddle-like flippers.
    • They are omnivorous, meaning they feed on both plants and animals.
    • They are solitary, preferring the open ocean.
    • These turtles spend their entire lives in the ocean, and migrate thousands of kilometers between feeding and mating grounds in a year.
  • Conservation Status:
    • IUCN Red List: Vulnerable
    • Wildlife Protection Act, 1972: Schedule 1
    • CITES: Appendix I





Electromagnetic radiation

Electromagnetic radiation is a type of energy that is all around us and takes many forms, such as radio waves, microwaves, X-rays and gamma-rays. Sunlight is also a form of electromagnetic energy, 



Friendshoring is a growing trade practice where supply chain networks are focused on countries regarded as political and economic allies.


Global wind pattern

The global wind pattern is also known as the "general circulation" and the surface winds of each hemisphere are divided into three wind belts:

  • Polar Easterlies: From 60-90 degrees latitude.
  • Prevailing Westerlies: From 30-60 degrees latitude (aka Westerlies).
  • Tropical Easterlies: From 0-30 degrees latitude (aka Trade Winds).

The easterly trade winds of both hemispheres converge at an area near the equator called the "Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)", producing a narrow band of clouds and thunderstorms that encircle portions of the globe



When the earth remains frozen for at least two consecutive years, it's called permafrost. 


Thermohaline circulation

Thermohaline circulation is a global ocean circulation pattern that distributes water and heat both vertically, through the water column, and horizontally across the globe.


The Prevention of Money Laundering Act (PMLA), 2002, is under scrutiny due to its broadened scope beyond its original focus on combating the laundering of drug money.

Background and Original Objective:

  • Global Concerns: The enactment of the PMLA stemmed from international efforts to combat money laundering, particularly proceeds from drug trafficking, highlighted by UN resolutions and the establishment of the FATF.
  • Focused Legislation: Initially, the PMLA primarily targeted the laundering of drug money, aligning with UN resolutions and FATF recommendations to tackle this specific aspect of money laundering.
  • Parliamentary Enactment: The PMLA was enacted by India's Parliament under Article 253 to implement international conventions and decisions, with its scope confined to the subject matter of combating drug money laundering.

Expansion of Scope and Concerns:

  • Inclusion of Diverse Offences: Over time, the PMLA schedule expanded to include various offences unrelated to its original purpose, such as those listed in the IPC or other special laws, deviating from its focus on drug money laundering.
  • Uniform Application: The PMLA's stringent provisions, initially designed for drug traffickers, are now applied uniformly across all scheduled offences, including non-drug-related crimes like corruption under the Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988.
  • Presumption of Guilt: The PMLA's bail provision (Section 45) reverses the presumption of innocence, requiring the accused to prove innocence for bail, leading to prolonged detention without trial and raising concerns about individual rights.
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India implements a policy to promote domestic solar panel manufacturing and reduce reliance on imports, particularly from China, amid its ambitious renewable energy targets.

Need for Policy Implementation:

  • Reducing Import Dependency: India aims to decrease its reliance on imported solar panels, particularly from China, which dominates about 80% of the global supply.
  • Promoting Domestic Industry: The policy aims to boost the domestic solar panel manufacturing industry by certifying companies with approved manufacturing facilities, thereby enabling them to compete for government tenders.
  • Meeting Renewable Energy Targets: India seeks to source 500 GW, nearly half of its electricity requirement, from non-fossil fuel sources by 2030, necessitating significant growth in solar power capacity.

Challenges and Considerations:

  • Limited Domestic Capacity: India's domestic solar industry currently struggles to meet the demand for solar panels, requiring imports to fulfill installations.
  • Competitive Pricing: Domestic manufacturers face challenges competing with cheaper Chinese imports, despite paying for government certification.
  • Quality Assurance: While promoting domestic manufacturing, ensuring stringent quality checks is vital to maintain the affordability and reliability of solar power for consumers.
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Jawaharlal Nehru's speech in the Lok Sabha on April 2, 1954, advocating for a nuclear standstill agreement and global disarmament, is being revisited for its significant impact on India's stance on nuclear issues.

Proposal for Nuclear Disarmament:

  • Response to 'Castle Bravo' Test: Nehru's speech was prompted by the powerful 'Castle Bravo' thermonuclear test by the U.S., urging for a standstill agreement on nuclear testing amidst growing concerns over the dangers of nuclear proliferation.
  • Incremental Approach: The standstill agreement proposed by Nehru took a pragmatic incremental approach towards disarmament, calling for an immediate testing moratorium, increased transparency on nuclear weapons' effects, and global recognition of the nuclear threat.
  • Expanding the Discourse: Nehru's initiative expanded the discourse on disarmament beyond the limited UN Disarmament Commission, making it a global issue and putting pressure on nuclear states to recognize the dangers of their tests.

Moral Force and Global Significance:

  • India's Moral Influence: Despite India's economic and military limitations in 1954, Nehru's speech emphasized India's moral force and its capacity to influence global disarmament discussions, highlighting the country's significance beyond material strength.
  • Strategic Pragmatism: Nehru's stance on disarmament was driven by India's development needs and concerns over resource allocation, with the Atomic Energy Act providing a contingency plan for nuclear weapons development if required, demonstrating strategic foresight.
  • Legacy and International Impact: Nehru's speech laid the groundwork for the Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT) and solidified norms against nuclear use, positioning India as a voice of reason and morality on the global stage, as reflected in its early signing of the PTBT in 1963.
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