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31th January 2024 (9 Topics)

31th January 2024

QUIZ - 31th January 2024

5 Questions

5 Minutes



Women and their participation in workforce remains an area on which not enough impetus has been paid. The underreported issue of internal female migration in India and the challenges faced by migrant women in the labor force demand attention. The existing surveys are inadequate in capturing the true extent of the problem.

  1. Inaccuracy in Surveys and Apathy:

   -Inadequate Surveys:  The Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS) estimates internal migration in India at 27% from June 2020 to 2021, with normative literature usually portraying it as male-dominated.

   -Exclusion in Stats: Despite comprising a significant share of the migrant pool, women's migration receives little attention, raising concerns given the declining Female Labour Force Participation Rate (FLFPR). National surveys, such as PLFS, provide an inaccurate picture by focusing on primary reasons for migration, with marriage being the predominant factor for women.

   -Lack of voice: Women migrants are not considered a significant vote bank, resulting in political neglect and a lack of targeted policies addressing their unique needs. Existing policies, such as One Nation One ration card, e-Shram, and affordable rental housing complexes, primarily cater to the male migrant population, neglecting the distinct challenges faced by women.

  1. Underreported Employment Status:

   - Employment status: PLFS data suggests that around three-quarters of migrant women are unemployed, with 14% in self and wage-employed jobs and 12% in casual labor.

   -lack of Definition: Definitional issues and women's beliefs contribute to underreporting, as many engage in casual employment, not captured by traditional definitions.

   -Away from reality: Women often choose forms of employment that align with domestic duties, leading to the misclassification of their employment status.

  1. Barriers to Formal Labor Force Entry:

   - Education: Limited human and social capital, as evidenced by 85% of migrant women having less than 10 years of education, poses significant barriers to their entry into the formal labor force.

   - Networking: Lack of social networks after migration further hinders employment chances, especially when coupled with lower education levels.

  - Post-Pandemic Challenges: Challenges faced by women after the COVID-19-induced lockdown, where 55% never returned to their places of employment, and those who did faced a substantial        reduction in income.

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Amidst the changing dynamics of global economic power, particularly China's relative decline, India has a potential to fill the gap.

  1. China’s Economic Decline:

   - Downward trend: Analysts suggest an irreversible decline in China’s share of global GDP, attributing it to demographic decline, anti-market interventions, high debt, and declining worker productivity. China’s share of the world’s working-age population is expected to decline from 19% to 10% in the next three decades.

   -Uncertainties:  Debates exist on whether China can initiate reforms to reclaim faster growth or if internal political changes may lead to more accommodative external policies. Hence, there is a need for India to reassess assumptions about global power distribution, recognizing the US's enduring strength and the emerging limits to China's power.

   - Challenges for India: India should avoid nationalist hubris, focus on building strengths, and engage in cooperative regional efforts to thrive amid the evolving global power dynamics.

  1. Global Economic Implications:

   - Shift in power: Emerging markets like India, Indonesia, Mexico, Brazil, and Poland, along with the US, are contributing to the expansion of the global economy, highlighting a shift in economic power.

   -US-China Gap: The US economy is at $28 trillion in 2023, while China's is at $18 trillion, indicating a growing gap between their comprehensive national power.

   -Cautious and on guard: While not expecting an immediate overtake of the Chinese economy, India must remain vigilant in boundary issues and regional influence competitions.

  1. Implications for World Order:

   - China Behind US: The notion of China overtaking the US GDP is deemed unlikely, challenging the idea of a bipolar world or a G2 dominated by the US and China.

   -Multi-polarity: A changing economic landscape suggests a more multipolar Asia, with India, Indonesia, Vietnam, and the Philippines experiencing faster economic growth.

 - India's chance: India’s economic acceleration, coupled with China's slower growth, allows Delhi to steadily reduce the economic gap with Beijing. Despite not overtaking China soon, India can confidently cope with Chinese power by building national capabilities, strengthening regional coalitions like the Quad, and adapting to the evolving power shift.

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Context : The Supreme Court's recent intervention to protect the endangered Great Indian Bustard (GIB) and unconventional conservation methods, specifically regulated hunting, to address the challenges posed by renewable energy projects.

  1. Supreme Court's Conservation Measures:

   - Predator-Proof Fencing and Controlled Grazing: The Supreme Court's intervention recommends practical steps like predator-proof fencing and controlled grazing to safeguard the Great Indian Bustard (GIB) and minimize risks associated with renewable energy projects.

   - Bird Diverters on Power Lines: The Court mandates the installation of bird diverters on power lines within GIB habitats, showcasing an ecocentric approach to conservation and a nuanced understanding of the environmental impact.

   - Balancing Renewable Energy with Wildlife: Recognizing the delicate balance required, the Court emphasizes the urgent need to harmonize renewable energy goals with wildlife preservation.

  1. Threats to the Great Indian Bustard:

   - Impact of Overhead Power Lines: The proliferation of overhead power lines, integral to India's renewable energy ambitions, poses a severe threat to the GIB due to collisions, prompting the Court to enforce measures to minimize these risks.

   - Climate Change Mitigation vs. Biodiversity Protection: The conflict between India's commitments under the Paris Agreement's Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) and its obligations under the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) underscores the need for a careful balance.

   - Renewable Energy Infrastructure Challenges: The expansion of renewable energy infrastructure, while crucial for reducing carbon emissions, necessitates innovative strategies to prevent biodiversity loss.

  1. The Role of Regulated Hunting in Conservation:

   - Regulated Hunting as a Conservation Tool: Proposing regulated hunting as an unconventional yet transformative solution, its successful application in various parts of the world to generate revenue for conservation efforts.

   - Positive Examples in India: Examining cases in India, such as the management of deer populations in Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh, illustrates how regulated hunting, under strict supervision, has positively impacted ecological balance and wildlife conservation.

   - Ethical Considerations and Legal Frameworks: Emphasizing that regulated hunting in India adheres to rigorous legal frameworks and ethical considerations, ensuring alignment with broader wildlife conservation goals and principles.

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