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6th January 2024 (12 Topics)

6th January 2024

QUIZ - 6th January 2024

5 Questions

5 Minutes

Editorials

Context:

The Indian economy is estimated to grow at a healthy 7.3 per cent in the ongoing financial year, up from 7.2 per cent last year, as per the first advance estimates released by the National Statistical Office.

Economic Growth Estimates

  • NSO's Upbeat Projection: NSO forecasts 7.3% growth, surpassing most analysts' and RBI's estimates.
  • Growth Trends: Estimated 7% growth in the latter half, but potential revisions due to incomplete year data.
  • Sector-wise Analysis: Agricultural slowdown to 1.8%, contrasting with stronger industrial growth of 7.9% and a service sector drop to 7.7%.

Sector-wise Performance

  • Agricultural Sector: Expected decline to 1.8%, yet better than anticipated during El Nino.
  • Industrial Growth: Rise to 7.9%, fueled by robust manufacturing and construction activities.
  • Services Sector: Downturn to 7.7%, attributed to reduced performance in trade, hotels, transport, and communication.

Consumption, Investment, and Fiscal Outlook

  • Consumption Weakness: Sluggish private consumption at 4.4%, possibly linked to subdued wage growth.
  • Investment Activity: Expected growth at 10.3%, though government spending might decline during upcoming elections.
  • Fiscal Projections: Nominal GDP growth at 8.9%, potentially impacting fiscal deficit ratio, likely edging to around 6% of GDP.
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Editorials

Context:

The economic turmoil that AI threatens by taking up jobs and roles, perhaps within the year, is only that turmoil.

Legal Battle Over AI and Intellectual Property

  • New York Times Lawsuit: The New York Times sues OpenAI and Microsoft for unspecified billions, alleging unauthorized scraping of content by ChatGPT.
  • Scope of Lawsuits: Non-fiction writers, including Julian Sancton, Jonathan Franzen, George R R Martin, and John Grisham, join the legal battle against ChatGPT for content misuse.
  • Existential Threat to Creativity: The legal actions highlight the pivotal role of intellectual property, emphasizing the existential threat AI poses to human creativity and ownership.

AI Training and Blowback

  • ChatGPT Training Data: ChatGPT is trained on a vast range of internet content, including Western literature, philosophy, and media arts, raising concerns about intellectual property rights.
  • AI's Acceptability Parameters: The blowback from entities like the New York Times signifies society's evolving stance on what is acceptable in AI training, revealing potential limits and areas of contention.
  • Unforeseen Consequences: Isaac Asimov's Three Laws of Robotics, designed to prevent harm, inadvertently spark debates on AI's permissible role, especially concerning competition with human creativity.

Defending Creativity Against AI

  • Defining Violence in AI Competition: The First Law of Robotics, prohibiting harm to humans, prompts considerations about AI's role in competing with humans in ways that threaten their essence.
  • Economic Turmoil vs. Assistive Roles: The discussion shifts from economic turmoil due to AI-induced unemployment to recognizing AI's potential as an assistant in various fields.
  • Creativity as a Defended Asset: Creative individuals unite against AI, highlighting that creativity is a priceless asset worth defending, distinguishing humans from machines and triggering legal confrontations.
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    Editorials

    Context:

    Antimicrobial resistance is a health issue that will negate advances in medicine.

    Alarming Antibiotic Prescription Patterns

    • High Antibiotic Prescriptions: The 'First Multicentric Point Prevalence Survey of Antibiotic Use' reveals over 70% antibiotic prescription rates in tertiary-care hospitals across 15 States and two Union Territories.
    • Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR): More than 50% of prescribed antibiotics carry the risk of causing AMR, a severe global health concern.
    • Prophylactic Antibiotics: A significant concern emerges as 55% of patients receive antibiotics as preventive measures, with only 45% getting them for actual infections.

    Implications of Antimicrobial Resistance

    • Evolution of Drug-Resistant Pathogens: AMR arises from misuse and overuse, enabling pathogens to evolve and resist antimicrobial drugs.
    • Global Health Impact: WHO estimates show direct responsibility for 1.27 million deaths in 2019 and contributions to 4.95 million deaths due to bacterial AMR.
    • Undermining Medical Advances: AMR not only hinders infection treatment but also heightens risks in medical procedures like surgery, caesarean sections, and cancer chemotherapy.

    Urgent Measures and Stakeholder Roles

    • Research and Development Crisis: The article emphasizes the antibiotic research and development pipeline crisis, urging immediate measures and equitable access to new drugs.
    • Role of Doctors and Government: Calls for rational antibiotic prescriptions and government regulation on drug use, especially in animal husbandry.
    • Patient Awareness: Acknowledges patient expectations for immediate relief, highlighting the need for public awareness on the implications of antibiotic misuse and the importance of adhering to medical protocols.
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