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9th September 2023

Shivaji's historic Wagh Nakh


In a significant development, the UK authorities have agreed to return the iconic 'wagh nakh,' a dagger shaped like tiger claws used by Maratha king Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj.

  • The small weapon is currently part of London's Victoria and Albert Museum.

  • The 'wagh nakh,'(Tiger Claws) an artifact made of steel with four claws mounted on a bar and two rings for the first and fourth fingers.
  • This weapon holds historical significance as it was used by Shivaji Maharaj to kill Afzal Khan, the general of the Bijapur sultanate in 1659.
  • It was designed to slash through skin and muscle.
  • It holds a special place in the history for the people of Maharashtra.
  • Its return symbolizes a significant milestone in the state's cultural legacy and the reverence it holds for its iconic leader, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj.

    This year is been celebrating 350 years of the coronation of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj.

Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj:

  • He was born on 19th February 1630 at Shivneri Fort in District Pune in the present-day state of Maharashtra.
  • He was born to Shahaji Bhonsle, a Maratha general who held the jagirs of Pune and Supe under the Bijapur Sultanate, and Jijabai, a pious woman whose religious qualities had a profound influence on him.
  • Shivaji was not named after Lord Shiva. His name was derived from the name of a regional deity – ‘Goddess Shivai.’


  • He revived ancient Hindu political traditions, and court conventions and promoted the usage of Marathi and Sanskrit, rather than Persian, in court and administration.
  • India's first-ever navy in the modern era was built by Shivaji to protect the coast of Maharashtra.
  • He established a competent and progressive civil rule with the help of disciplined military and well-structured administrative organizations.
  • He innovated military tactics, pioneering non-conventional methods (guerrilla warfare) and leveraged strategic factors like geography, speed, and surprise.
  • He focused on pinpoint attacks to defeat his larger and more powerful enemies.
  • A brave and genuinely secular ruler, he respected women and cared for the downtrodden and farmers.
  • He died on 3rd April 1680.

Who was Afzal Khan?

  • He was a 17th-century commander of the Adil Shahi dynasty of Bijapur.
  • With Chhatrapati Shivaji’s rise and increasing control of the region, Afzal Khan was seen as the man to subdue him in the Deccan.
  • Khan put together a force of 10,000 cavalry and marched from Bijapur to Wai, plundering Shivaji’s territory along the way.
  • Shivaji called a council of war at the fort of Pratapgarh, where most of his advisers urged him to make peace.
  • During the meeting, an embrace between the two turned into an attack in which Shivaji emerged victorious. This was followed by a rout of the Adilshahi army at the hands of the Marathas.
  • As per Maratha sources, Khan’s remains were buried at the fort and a tomb was constructed on Shivajij’s orders.

Important Battle:

India-US Bilateral Talks on Trade Settlement


During the bilateral talks in New Delhi amid the US President’s visit, India and the US also settled the seventh and last outstanding World Trade Organisation (WTO) dispute.

About the update:
  • The six previous disputes were resolved during PM Modi’s state visit to the US.
The six disputes that have been already settled include;
  • Countervailing measures on certain hot-rolled carbon steel flat products from India,
  • Certain measures relating to solar cells and modules, and
  • Measures relating to the renewable energy sector,
  • India's export-related measures,
  • Certain measures on steel and aluminum products and
  • Additional duties on some products from the US.
  • The USA too announced the resolution of the outstanding WTO poultry dispute with India in a separate statement.
  • As part of the agreement, India also agreed to reduce tariffs on certain U.S. products, including frozen turkey, frozen duck, fresh blueberries and cranberries, frozen blueberries and cranberries, dried blueberries and cranberries, and processed blueberries and cranberries.
  • These tariff cuts will expand economic opportunities for U.S. agricultural producers in a critical market and help bring more U.S. products to customers in India.
  • India also agreed to reduce tariffs on certain U.S. products, including chickpeas, lentils, almonds, walnuts, apples, boric acid, and diagnostic reagents.

WTO and dispute resolution:

  • Dispute settlement is the central pillar of the multilateral trading system, and the WTO’s unique contribution to the stability of the global economy.
  • Without a means of settling disputes, the rules-based system would be less effective because the rules could not be enforced.
  • The WTO’s procedure underscores the rule of law, and it makes the trading system more secure and predictable.
  • The system is based on clearly defined rules, with timetables for completing a case.
  • First rulings are made by a panel and endorsed (or rejected) by the WTO’s full membership. Appeals based on points of law are possible.

India-US trade relations

  • In 2021, overall U.S.-India bilateral trade in goods and services reached a record 157 billion dollars.
  • The United States is India’s largest trading partner and most important export market.
  • Many U.S. companies view India as a critical market and have expanded their operations there.
  • Likewise, Indian companies seek to increase their presence in U.S. markets and at the end of 2020, Indian investment in the United States totaled 12.7 billion dollars, supporting over 70,000 American jobs.
  • The nearly 200,000 Indian students in the United States contribute $7.7 billion annually to the U.S. economy.
  • The World Trade Organization (WTO):
    • The WTO is an international organization established in 1995, succeeding the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).
    • It is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, and serves as the global body responsible for regulating international trade.
  • Objective:
    • The primary objective of the WTO is to promote and facilitate international trade by reducing trade barriers and tariffs.
    • Member countries engage in negotiations to liberalize trade and establish rules governing trade-related aspects such as tariffs, subsidies, and trade dispute resolution.
  • Principles of the WTO:
    • Non-discrimination (the most-favored-nation principle), which ensures that any trade advantage granted to one member must be extended to all members.
    • National treatment, ensuring that foreign and domestic products are treated equally.
  • The WTO provides a mechanism for resolving trade disputes among member countries.
    • This process involves panels of experts who assess disputes and issue rulings.
    • Member countries are required to abide by these rulings, enhancing the rule-based nature of international trade.

Rajasthan Governor’s assent sought for social security Bills


Recently, activists sought the Governor of Rajasthan to pass the Rajasthan Minimum Guaranteed Income Bill 2023 and the Rajasthan Platform Based Gig Workers (Registration and Welfare) Bill 2023.

The Rajasthan Minimum Guaranteed Income Bill 2023:

  • Objective: In order to provide individuals or households with a minimal additional guaranteed income in the form of a guaranteed wage/pension, the bill would establish entitlement-based social security.
  • Salient provisions:
    • Minimum guaranteed income: Each adult citizen of the state has been guaranteed a minimum income for 125 days a year.
      • This will be provided through two schemes,
      • In the urban areas through the Rajasthan government’s flagship Indira Gandhi Shahri Rozgar Guarantee Yojana.
      • In the rural areas through the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA).
  • Guaranteed employment:
    •  The minimum wages should be paid weekly or in any case not later than a fortnight to ensure the right to employment.
    • The Program Officers (BDO in rural and an Executive Officer of the local body in urban areas) shall ensure that the work site is within a radius of 5 Km of where the job card is registered.
    • The applicant is entitled to an unemployment allowance if the program officer fails to offer work within 15 days of receiving the application.
  • Guaranteed social security pension: The government will provide eligible categories (aged, disabled, widows, and single women) with a minimum pension of Rs 1,000, which will be increased at the rate of 15% each year.

The Rajasthan Platform-Based Gig Workers (Registration and Welfare) Bill 2023:

  • Objective: This bill aims to address the lack of protection and benefits for gig workers, who were previously classified as "partners" rather than employees in companies like Ola, Uber, Swiggy, Zomato, and Amazon.
  • Earlier, the Code on Social Security, 2020 mandated social security funds for gig workers, including life, disability, health benefits, and more.

Key Features:

  • Registration of Gig Workers:
      • The bill mandates the registration of all gig workers with the state government to bring them under the ambit of labor regulations.
      • The state government will maintain a comprehensive database of all gig workers operating in Rajasthan.
      • Each gig worker will be assigned a unique ID, which will facilitate tracking their employment history and entitlements.
  • Access to Social Security Schemes:
      • Gig workers will be granted access to a range of social security schemes.
      • These schemes may include health insurance, accident coverage, and other welfare measures to provide financial support during emergencies.
  • Grievance Redressal Mechanism:
    • The bill ensures that gig workers have the right to be heard and address any grievances they may have.
    • This provision seeks to protect the rights of gig workers and provide them with a platform to resolve work-related issues.
  • Establishment of Platform-Based Gig Workers Welfare Board:
    • This board will be responsible for overseeing the welfare and rights of gig workers in the state.
    • Welfare Board — comprising State officials, five representatives each from gig workers and aggregators, and two others (“one from Civil Society and another who evince interest in any other field”).
    • At least one-third of the nominated members should be women.
    • This representation aims to ensure that the interests of both parties are considered when making decisions related to welfare and regulation.
  • Platform-Based Gig Workers Fund and Welfare Fee:
    • The bill introduces a "Platform-Based Gig Workers Fund and Welfare Fee" to finance the social security measures for gig workers.
    • The fund will be utilized to provide financial support and welfare benefits to gig workers during challenging times.
  • Fee Levied on Aggregators:
    • Aggregators will be required to pay a fee for each transaction involving a platform-based gig worker.
    • The specific percentage of the fee will be determined by the state government to contribute to the welfare fund.

RBI decides to discontinue I-CRR


The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has decided to discontinue the incremental Cash Reserve Ratio (I-CRR) in a phased manner.

About the Update:
  • While 25% of the I-CRR maintained would be released on September 9, 2023, another 25% would be released on September 23, 2023, and the balance 50% would be released on October 7, 2023.
  • Based on an assessment of current and evolving liquidity conditions, it has been decided that the amounts impounded under the I-CRR would be released in stages so that system liquidity is not subjected to sudden shocks and money markets function in an orderly manner.
  • The RBI in its Monetary Policy Statement had announced that scheduled banks would be required to maintain an I-CRR of 10% scheduled banks  on the increase in their net demand and time liabilities (NDTL) till July 28, 2023.
  • Need of such a step: The measure was intended to absorb the surplus liquidity generated by various factors, including the return of Rs. 2000 notes to the banking system.

What is Incremental Cash Reserve Ratio (I-CRR)?

  • The I-CRR is an additional cash balance that the RBI can ask banks to maintain over and above the cash reserve ratio (CRR).

    • CRR is the minimum amount of the total deposits that banks must keep with the central bank – for a specific period.
    • anks are currently required to maintain 4.5 percent of their Net Demand and Time Liabilities as CRR with the RBI.
  • Banks are required to maintain liquid cash amounting to a certain proportion of their deposits and certain other liabilities with the RBI.
  • This is a tool at the disposal of the RBI to control the liquidity in the economy and can also act as a buffer in periods of bank stress.

Why did RBI take this step?

  • RBI has the option to impose an incremental credit reserve ratio, in addition to the CRR, in periods of excess liquidity in the system and the central bank is now exercising it.
  • However, these extra funds can be returned to the banks as per the requirement, but on the discretion of RBI.

What are the impacts of I-CRR?

  • Less fund availability with banks for lending: The temporary increase in the Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR) means that banks will have to set aside more of their funds with the Reserve Bank of India (RBI).
  • This could lead to a reduction in the funds available for lending and an increase in market interest rates.
    • Less lending for loans: This is because banks will be holding onto more of their resources rather than lending them out.
  • Can control Inflation: This temporary increase in CRR is a measured approach to manage the excess liquidity caused by the recent demonetization of Rs.2,000 notes.

Tools of Open Market Operations (OMO):

Open Market Operations (OMO) are one of the conventional monetary policy tools used by central banks to regulate the money supply and interest rates in an economy. The main tools used in OMO are:

  • Government Securities Purchase: Central banks buy government securities (such as bonds or treasury bills) from financial institutions or the general public. This injects money into the financial system, increasing the money supply.
  • Government Securities Sale: Conversely, central banks can sell government securities to financial institutions or the public. This reduces the amount of money in circulation, thus decreasing the money supply.
  • Repurchase Agreements (Repo): In a repo, the central bank sells government securities with an agreement to repurchase them later. It allows the central bank to control the money supply while maintaining ownership of the securities.
  • Reverse Repurchase Agreements (Reverse Repo): This is the opposite of a repo. In a reverse repo, the central bank buys government securities with an agreement to sell them back in the future. This temporarily reduces the money supply, as it takes money out of circulation.
  • Term Auction Facility (TAF): This helps in managing liquidity over a specified term.
  • Marginal Standing Facility (MSF): The MSF allows banks to borrow funds overnight from the central bank against the collateral of government securities. The interest rate on MSF is higher than the repo rate, which discourages banks from excessively relying on this facility

Pearl millet cultivation zones in India


According to a new study, India’s core pearl millet or Bajra production zone has shifted to 18 districts spread across eastern Rajasthan and Haryana between 1998 and 2017.

About the study:

The study was conducted by the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-arid Tropics (ICRISAT) and the Indian Council of Agricultural Research – All India Coordinated Research Project on Pearl Millet (ICAR-AICRP).
It examined data from crop models and digital technology and suggested a revision of the Indian pearl millet Total Population Environments (TPE).
It also suggested that an increase in rainfall triggered by human-induced climate change has led to the pearl millet zone shifting.

Pearl Millet and Zone Distribution in India:

  • India classifies pearl millet cultivation zones based on rainfall patterns and soil types.
  • Zones are classified as;
    • The arid regions of Rajasthan, which receive less than 400 millimeters (mm) of rainfall, are categorized as Zone ‘A1’.
    • Semi-arid regions in north and central India, including southern Rajasthan, Haryana, Gujarat, and Uttar Pradesh which receive more than 400 mm of rainfall per year, form Zone ‘A’.
    • Semi-arid regions with heavy soils in southern India and central western India with over 400 mm of rainfall from Zone B.

Key Findings of the study:

  • Sub-classifications: The paper revised ‘A’ into three subzones — ‘G’, ‘AE1’, and ‘AE2’.
  • Zone ‘G’ covers Gujarat while AE1 covers eastern Rajasthan and Haryana.
  • Zone ‘AE2’ covers 12 districts spread across Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.
  • AE1’, which is now India’s core pearl millet production area with 39 percent production, saw an increase in production of 46 kilograms per hectare, owing to an increase in rainfall.
  • The researchers noted that technological investments in irrigation, fertilization and new varieties that favored intensified cultivation practices also led to an increase in the zone’s pearl millet production.
  • ‘AE2’ saw an average increase of 1,860 kg per hectare in bajra production between 1998 and 2017.
  • Shifting trends: The paper also noted that climate change is contributing to more rainfall in Zone ‘G’ covering seven districts in Gujarat.
  • This has led to farmers changing their cultivation patterns and switching from pearl millet to cash crops.

The Pearl Millet:

  • The three major millets cultivated in India are Jowar, Bajra, and Ragi.
  • Bajra is also known as the pearl millet.
  • Scientific name: Pennisetum glaucum
  • It is cultivated mainly in the semiarid tropics, almost exclusively by subsistence and small-scale commercial farmers.
  • Optimal temperature requirement: Pearl millet grows best at temperatures between 27 to 32 degrees Celsius (81 to 90 degrees Fahrenheit).
  • Temperature Tolerance: Pearl millet is known for its ability to withstand high temperatures, even exceeding 40 degrees Celsius (104 degrees Fahrenheit).

Pearl millet is gaining importance as a climate-resilient and health-promoting nutritious crop.
Recent evidence using microsatellites suggests the monophyletic origin of pearl millet and its further migration and secondary diversification leading to enormous diversity.

A Scientific update:

  • Genetic erosion of landraces has been evident in different pearl millet growing regions due to replacement with modern cultivars.
  • Large variability found in pearl millet germplasm has been conserved in several gene banks.
  • Toward enhancing the utilization of pearl millet germplasm, available subsets like core and minicore collections and reference sets should be extensively evaluated to identify trait-specific germplasm and develop genomic resources to associate sequence differences with trait variations.

Short News Article

Art and Culture (GS-I)
Cheriyal scroll painting

A Cheriyal scroll painting from Telangana is one of the gifts that first ladies or spouses of heads of state from around the world got who gathered for the G20 Summit in New Delhi.

About Cheriyal scroll painting:

  • These paintings are one of the oldest art forms of the region, embodying its rich storytelling traditions.
  • A narrative painting and performance tradition, Cheriyal scroll painting has been practised in the town of Cheriyal in Siddipet district, Telangana since the seventeenth century.
  • Cheriyal scroll paintings are made by artists known as Nakashis, who belong to the Madiga, Goud, Mudiraj, Mala, Padmashali, Chakali and other non-dominant caste communities in the region.
  • Their folktales form a major part of the narratives in the paintings, along with caste-specific renderings of tales from the Puranas, the Mahabharata, and the Ramayana.
  • Historically, the scrolls were used as illustrations for storytelling performances by travelling bards.

Polity and Governance (GS-II)
Payments Council of India (PCI)

The Global Fintech Fest 2023 was recently organized by the National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI), Payments Council of India (PCI) and Fintech Convergence Council (FCC).


  • Payments Council of India (PCI) is a body representing over 85% of the non-bank companies in the Payments ecosystem and was formed to effectively cater to the needs of the digital payments industry.
  • The objective of PCI is to identify and build opportunities to address and help resolve industry-level issues and barriers that require industry-level discussion and action, and
  • proactively encourage the growth of non-banking payment systems for ushering in a " less-cash society " in India.
    The council works with all its members to promote payments industry growth and scale the vision of the payments ecosystem in India.

Economy (GS-III)
Fast infinitesimal time coalescent process" (FitCoal) method

A novel genomic analysis technique has helped reveal the reasons for a ‘bottleneck’ in the growth of the human population that almost wiped out the chance for humankind as it exists today.

  • They were able to determine demographic characteristics using modern-day human genome sequences from 3,154 individuals and a new analytical method called fast infinitesimal time coalescent process (FitCoal).


  • A new method called FitCoal determined that early human ancestors went through a prolonged and severe bottleneck during the early to middle Pleistocene era.
  • Approximately 65.85% of current genetic diversity may have been lost during the bottleneck.
  • Population bottlenecks, as significant reductions in a group's numbers are known, are not uncommon.
  • When a species is devastated by an event such as war, famine, or climate crisis, the resulting drop in genetic diversity can be traced through the progeny of the survivors.
  • The FitCoal method could also be used to answer other questions about early human ancestry and evolution.

Environment (GS-III)
World Electrical Vehicle (EV) Day

World EV day is celebrated on 9th September.


  • World EV Day is marked internationally on September 9 every year in celebration of e-mobility, and a day to shift the transition to sustainable transport with consumer, business, and policy outcomes.
  • In the Indian context, the day specifically takes on importance, especially with respect to the country’s 2070 net zero commitment.
  • The country targets a reduction of total projected carbon emissions by one billion tonnes by 2030.
  • These are particularly striking targets not only given the country’s size and the cost factor involved but also since coal is the country’s top energy source with a share of 44 percent in 2021, followed by oil (24 percent).


Change the playbook, repatriate Indian children


Foreign nations should engage in a sincere inquiry into Indian parents’ claims of cultural prejudice and unfair trials in their child protection system.

Expatriate Indian Mothers Facing Child Separation

  • Cultural Prejudice: It refers to a biased or negative attitude, belief, or stereotype held by individuals or groups against people from different cultural backgrounds or ethnicities.
  • Violation of Human Rights and Tragic Consequences: This violates human rights, affecting mothers, children, and families, leading to tragic consequences.
  • Unjust Separations- Cases from Australia and Germany: Instances in Australia and Germany highlight unjust separations, causing immense distress and despair for these families.

The Disturbing Trend and Its Playbook

  • Accusations and One-Sided Trials: Expatriate families often face accusations of child abuse in high-income countries, leading to one-sided trials and termination of parental custody.
  • Cultural Disconnection in Foster Care: Children are placed in foster care, losing cultural and ethnic ties, and becoming doubly alienated.
  • Urgent Need for Policy Reform and Extended Family Support: The current playbook neglects the option of placing children with extended family members, emphasizing the need for change.

Advocating for Repatriation and Cultural Sensitivity

  • A Kinder Solution: Returning children to their home country is a more humane solution, ensuring they grow up in familiar cultures with extended family support.
  • Prioritizing Cultural Sensitivity and Fair Trials: Foreign nations should investigate claims of cultural prejudice and unfair trials, prioritizing the child's best interests over technical considerations.
  • Balancing Best Interests: Decision-makers and governments must weigh the benefits of repatriation, acknowledging the importance of preserving cultural connections and extended family bonds.
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A Living Document


Our Constitution, the world’s largest living document, has served our country in an efficient manner for the last seven decades. However, it needs timely supervision for upcoming challenges.

Reflecting on the Constitution’s Significance

  • Birth of India's Constitution: The iconic old Parliament building was the birthplace of India's Constitution, crafted over 2 years and 293 days.
  • Contemplating the Constitution's Future: As we prepare to move, debates about the Constitution's future arise, including renaming India as Bharat.
  • Fundamental Debates on Constitutional Matters: Fundamental questions about terms in the Preamble, India's nature, and the "Basic Structure" argument are being discussed.
    The Rich Legacy and Ongoing Debates
  • India's Robust Constitution: India's Constitution, with 448 articles and 12 schedules, has efficiently guided the nation for seven decades.
  • Crafted by visionaries: It is a sacred document, shaped by stalwarts like B R Ambedkar, and enriched by leaders and debaters.
  • Evolving with Time: Despite its robustness, periodic re-examination of facets is essential, as demonstrated by the 106 amendments it has undergone.

Constitution's Evolution and Future Contemplations

  • Revisiting India's Identity: The "Basic Structure" argument and redefining India's nature are timely considerations for the Platinum Jubilee.
  • Vision of ‘Constitution as a Living Document’: Ambedkar's stance on the Constitution's adaptability and its role as a statement of intent is pertinent today.
  • Upholding Constitutionalism: Reflecting on global constitutional experiences, the editorial calls for conscientious constitutionalism as vital for a thriving republic.
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Pulses are dearer


The shortfall in pulse production has spurred inflation. The government must ease restrictions, and allow imports.

Concerns Over Below-Normal Monsoon Impact on Pulses

  • Reduced Sowing of Key Pulses: The sowing of key kharif season pulses like arhar, urad, and moong has reduced by 8.6% compared to the previous year.
  • Diminished Crop Prospects: Low prospects for a robust crop have led to a notable surge in pulse prices over the last two months.
  • Surge in Pulse Prices: Arhar prices rose from Rs 10,000 to Rs 12,500 per quintal, impacting moong and chana prices as well.

Prices Surge Above Minimum Support Levels

  • Price Escalation Beyond MSP: Prices for Arhar, Moong, and Chana now exceed their official minimum support prices (MSP), causing financial strain.
  • International Pulse Price Impact: The situation is aggravated by soaring international pulse prices, with India being a major producer, consumer, and importer.
  • Escalating Prices: Landed prices for masoor, the primary imported pulse, have significantly risen, surpassing the MSP.

Recommendations for Government Intervention

  • Strategic Use of Stocks: Advocate for judicious utilization of government-held chana stocks through open market operations, possibly limiting bids to actual users/dal millers.
  • Revising Import Restrictions: Propose revising restrictions on imported stocks, allowing holdings beyond 30 days, and enabling imports of yellow/white peas without excessive duties or price constraints.
  • Facilitating Yellow/White Peas Imports: There is a need for well-considered measures to address the current pulse price surge and stabilize the market.
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Critical for a Green Future


There is a vital role of critical minerals in India's clean energy transition. India needs to focus on curbing the challenges in global supply chains and strengthen self-reliance and international partnerships.

The Significance of Critical Minerals for Clean Energy Transition

  • Importance of Critical Minerals: Critical minerals like cobalt, lithium, and rare earth elements are crucial for clean energy technologies.
  • Key to India's Sustainable Energy Goals: They are vital for achieving India's sustainable energy goals and reducing emissions as outlined for 2030.
  • Reliable Supply Chains for Critical Minerals: The G20 Energy Transitions Ministers emphasize the need for reliable and sustainable supply chains of these minerals.

Challenges in Global Critical Minerals Supply Chains

  • Surge in Mining: Global demand for clean technologies has led to a substantial increase in the mining of critical minerals.
  • Complex Supply Chains: Vulnerabilities in supply chains are vulnerable to disruptions from trade treaties, geopolitical issues, and natural disasters.
  • Securing Supply Chains for National Security and Independence: Securing the supply chain is crucial for reducing import dependence, strengthening national security, and fostering a domestic value chain.

India's Initiatives for Atmanirbhar Bharat in Critical Minerals Sector

  • Efforts: The government, led by Prime Minister, is committed to developing the domestic critical minerals sector.
  • Policy reforms: Including amendments to the Mines and Minerals Act, have been implemented to support exploration, processing, and recycling.
  • Involvement of States: Cooperative federalism is demonstrated by exclusively auctioning concessions related to critical minerals, benefiting state governments' revenue receipts.
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