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IWT task force calls for speedy completion of projects in J&K

  • Published
    27th May, 2023
Context

A task force overseeing India’s rights under the Indus Waters Treaty emphasised the need to complete various hydropower projects in Jammu and Kashmir to facilitate the better utilisation of the country’s rights to river waters.

Background
  • The meeting was held against the backdrop of India formally informing Pakistan of its intention to modify the Indus Waters Treaty of 1960

Indus Water Treaty (IWT), 1960:

  • The six-decade-old treaty governs the sharing of waters of six rivers in the Indus system between the two countries. 
  • Main Rivers: Indus River, Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas, and Sutlej.
  • The basin is mainly shared by India and Pakistan with a small share of China and Afghanistan.
  • Under the treaty signed between India and Pakistan in 1960, all the waters of
    • Eastern rivers, namely Ravi, Sutlej, and Beas (Eastern Rivers) were allocated to India for exclusive use
    • Western riversIndus, Jhelum, and Chenab were allocated to Pakistan except for specified domestic, non-consumptive, and agricultural use permitted to India as provided in the Treaty.
  • India has also been given the right to generate hydroelectricity through run-of-the-river (RoR)projects on the Western Rivers which, subject to specific criteria for design and operation is unrestricted.

River Indus: Geographic Location

  • The Indus is a trans-boundary river of Asia and a trans-Himalayan river of South and Central Asia.  
  • The 3,120 km (1,940 mi) river rises in mountain springs northeast of Mount Kailash in Western Tibet, flows northwest through the disputed region of Kashmir, bends sharply to the left after the Nanga Parbat massif, and flows south-by-southwest through Pakistan, before emptying into the Arabian Sea near the port city of Karachi.
  • Significance:
    • The river has historically been important to many cultures of the region.
    • The 3rd millennium BC saw the rise of the Indus Valley civilization, a major urban civilization of the Bronze Age.
    • During the 2nd millennium BC, the Punjab region was mentioned in the Rigveda hymns as Sapta Sindhu and in the Avesta religious texts as Saptha Hindu (both terms meaning "seven rivers"). 
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