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Periodic Labour Force Surveys (PLFS) 2019-23

  • Published
    26th Oct, 2023

Recent findings of the Periodic Labour Force Surveys (PLFS) assessing various forms of employment from April-June 2019 to 2023 have been released.

Key Findings –

  • Trends in Gender Gap:
    • The gender gap in earnings has increased for self-employed workers but decreased for regular wage workers.
    • From 2019 to 2022, male regular wage workers earned 34% more than women, which decreased to 24% in 2023.
  • Average Weekly Work Hours:
    • Women work fewer hours than men across all types of work. In 2023, the largest gap in work hours was observed among self-employed workers, with men working 50% more hours than women.
    • The gap was the smallest for regular wage workers, where men and women worked 51 and 43 hours per week, respectively.
  • Earnings per Hour: When considering hourly earnings, the gap significantly reduces for regular wage workers.
    • In 2023, men in this category earned 24% more than women over the week, but also worked 19% longer.
    • The gap in hourly earnings for regular wage workers was only around 4%, down from 11% in 2019.
  • Inequality in Hourly Earnings: Inequality in hourly earnings is higher for casual workers and the self-employed, though not as high as when considering total earnings.
    • In 2023, male casual workers earned 23% more per hour than women, while the gap increased for the self-employed, reaching 87% in 2023.
  • Factors Influencing Hours of Work: The choice of working hours is influenced by various factors,
    • Including social norms that require women to handle domestic and child-rearing duties.
    • This can limit women's choices for full-time employment and lead to disparities in working hours.

About Periodic Labour Force Survey:

  • The Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS) is a comprehensive and recurring survey conducted by the Government of India through the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MoSPI).
  • The primary objective of the PLFS is to collect data related to labor force participation, employment, and unemployment in the country.
  • The survey aims to provide up-to-date and detailed information about the labor market in India, which is crucial for policymakers, researchers, and other stakeholders.
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