Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ)

  • Category
    Environment
  • Published
    17th May, 2019
  • The Supreme Court recently ordered the demolition of five apartments in Ernakulam's Maradu municipality in Kerala for violation of Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) rules.
  • The Bench directed the Kerala Coastal Zone Management Authority, to clear the buildings within a period of one month and to submit a report before the court. The court said the State cannot bear illegal constructions with the danger of floods and heavy rain looming large.

Context

  • The Supreme Court recently ordered the demolition of five apartments in Ernakulam's Maradu municipality in Kerala for violation of Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) rules.
  • The Bench directed the Kerala Coastal Zone Management Authority, to clear the buildings within a period of one month and to submit a report before the court. The court said the State cannot bear illegal constructions with the danger of floods and heavy rain looming large.

About

Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ):

  • Under the Environment Protection Act, 1986 of India, notification was issued in 1991, for regulation of activities in the coastal area by the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF).
  • As per the notification, the coastal land up to 500m from the High Tide Line (HTL) and a stage of 100m along banks of creeks, estuaries, backwater and rivers subject to tidal fluctuations, is called the Coastal Regulation Zone(CRZ).
  • CRZ along the country has been placed in four categories depending on their land use and regulated developmental activities in the areas:
    • CRZ-1: It is the ecologically sensitive area that is essential for maintaining the ecosystem of the coast. It lies between low and high tide line and includes the areas like mangroves, coral reefs and sand dunes. It was off-limits for tourism activities and infrastructure development, except for defence, strategic and rare public utility projects.
    • CRZ-2: These areas form up to the shoreline of the coast. Unauthorised structures are not allowed to construct in this zone.
    • CRZ-3: Rural and urban localities which fall outside the 1 and 2. Only certain activities related to agriculture even some public facilities are allowed in this zone.
    • CRZ-4: It includes the shallow belt of coastal waters extending up to 12 nautical miles. It is a crucial fishing zone for small fishers.
  • In the aftermath of the 2004 tsunami, which killed 10,000 people along the eastern coast, CRZ Notification 2011 was brought in to beef up coastal zone.

2018 Notification:

  • It further categorises CRZ-1. It allows eco-tourism activities such as mangrove walks, tree huts and nature trails in eco-sensitive areas, demarcated as CRZ-IA. Sea links, salt harvesting and desalination plants and roads on stilts are also allowed in CRZ-IA.
    • The controversial land reclamation, in which new land is created from oceans or lake beds and is known to have strong impacts on coastal ecology, has been allowed in intertidal or CRZ-IB areas, for ports and sea links.
  • In CRZ-II, a substantially built-up area, project developers can now increase the floor area ratio or floor space index, and build resorts and other tourism facilities.
  • It drastically shrinks no development zone (NDZ) of CRZ-III from 100m to 50m from HDL in densely populated areas. This technically allows resorts, hotels and tourism facilities to be built right up to HTL.
  • In CRZ-IV, it allows land reclamation for setting up ports, harbours and roads; facilities for discharging treated effluents; transfer of hazardous substances; and construction of memorials or monuments.

X
History Webinar

© 2020 Basix Education Pvt. Ltd. All Rights Reserved