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Geospatial technology for monitoring natural resources.

  • Category
    Geography
  • Published
    20th Dec, 2018
  • Vast size of Indian mainland and its vast potential of rich natural resources which are not uniformly distributed, has made it necessary to use advanced technology like remote sensing and GIS (Geographic Information System).
  • Remote sensing and GIS have potential to map natural resources in difficult valleys and terrain which will be a boon for country like India which possesses difficult relief and physical features in Himalayan and Peninsular plateau region.

Context

  • Vast size of Indian mainland and its vast potential of rich natural resources which are not uniformly distributed, has made it necessary to use advanced technology like remote sensing and GIS (Geographic Information System).
  • Remote sensing and GIS have potential to map natural resources in difficult valleys and terrain which will be a boon for country like India which possesses difficult relief and physical features in Himalayan and Peninsular plateau region.

About

  • Remote Sensing: It is a science of measuring the Earth using sensors mounted on high flying aircrafts or satellites. These sensors collect data in the form of images and provide insights for manipulating, analyzing and visualizing those images.
  • GIS: It is a computer-based tool that analyzes, stores, manipulates and visualizes geographic information, usually in a map. It uses data from satellites and remote capturing using high resolution cameras by aircrafts.

Major applications:

  • Land Management: Around 50% population of India has been totally dependent on agriculture for their livelihood. ISRO (Indian Space Research Organization) and ICAR (Indian Council for Agricultural Research) together did an experiment called ARISE (Agricultural Resource Inventory and Survey Experiment) in a quest to find possibility to analyze changing land use pattern.
  • Soil Management: GIS is a powerful tool in management of soil resources of the country. GIS, GPS and RS have much to offer soil fertility maps. Once soil fertility maps are created, it is possible to transform the information from Soil Test Crop Response models into spatial fertilizers recommendation maps.
  • Watershed Management: A watershed is a natural hydrological unit and its management involves the holistic linking of upstream and downstream areas. Watershed Management is the best way to conserve rain fed marginal areas enabling a sustainable living. With the help of satellite data and GIS, water bodies such as lakes, reservoirs can be mapped in 3D formats and data can be used in the planning of sustainable management of water bodies.
  • Urban land Management: Urbanization is a major problem for a country like India. Rapid increase in rate of inter-state migration and internal displacement has made it essential for better and effective urban planning. Multi layered mapping can be done by using GIS which can be further used by Municipal Corporation and real state planners. This will help effectively in laying down transportation lines and telecommunication network.
  • Forest and ecosystem: India being the 10th largest country in terms of forest cover has potential to increase its forest cover along with sustainable use of forest resources. Use of LISS-I sensor, LandSat satellite data and ResourceSat, IRS-1A has helped Forest Survey of India to map canopy cover in a better way.
  • Coastal Zone Management: Rapid increase in sea level due to global warming is causing habitat loss to coastal community and loss of biodiversity to a greater extent. GIS will help in monitoring loss of biodiversity in form of coral polyps, mangrove species etc. It also maps mineral resources available of continental shelves.
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