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Goa to host 3-day international Shiva festival next year

  • Category
    Art and culture
  • Published
    6th Jul, 2022

Context

The Goa Tourism Development Board (GTDC) has planned to host a three-day ‘International Shiv Festival’ during Mahashivratri next year at the famous Tambdi Surla temple in Mollem.

About:

  • Every year, spirited celebration takes place at the 12th Century Shiva temple on Mahashivratri. 
  • Mahashivratri is celebrated with great devotion and religious fervor all over India by Hindus, in honor of Lord Shiva.
  • It is celebrated on the 14th day of the Maagha or Phalguna month of the Hindu calendar.
  • The proposed festival will be a cultural event to showcase the Shiv mudra dance, and performers excelling in the art would be expected to participate.

Tambdi Surla temple:

  • The Mahadev Temple at Tambdi Surla in Mollem is the most ancient temple in Goa.
  • Built in: 12th century.
  • Temple style: Jain style
  • Deity: The perfectly proportioned black basalt temple is dedicated to Lord Shiva.
    • Lord Shiva, Sri Vishnu and Lord Brahma, with their consorts appear on panels at the sides of the temple.
  • There is a Shiva Linga mounted on a pedestal inside the inner sanctum and a headless Nandi (bull, Shiva's vehicle) in the centre of the mandap, surrounded by four matching columns. 
  • It is the only monument of Kadamba-Yadava architecture.
    • Kadamba dynasty was ruling during the time when this temple was constructed.

Kadamba architecture

  • Kadamba architecture was a style of temple architecture founded by Mayurasharma in the 4th century AD in Karnataka.
  • Kadambas created new style of architecture which was the basis of the Hoysalas style of architecture, developed original school of sculpture, was the forerunner of series of South Indian sculptors.
  • Many temples at Aihole, Badami and Hampi are built in Kadamba architectural style.
  • The temple faces east so that the rays of the rising sun fall on the deity at the crack of dawn.
  • The river Surla flows nearby and can be reached via a flight of stone steps. 

Jain temple Style

  • Initial years: At the beginning, Jain architecture was merely an offshoot of Hindu and Buddhist styles.
  • Later years: In later years, Jains started building temple cities hills based on the concept of “mountains of immortality.”

Elements of Jain Architecture

  • Squares: In terms of elements in architecture, most Jain temples have numerous pillars. They have a well-designed structure, forming squares.
  • Chambers: The squares thus formed create chambers, used as small chapels and contains the image of a deity.
  • Brackets: From these pillars, there are richly carved brackets that emerge at about two thirds of their height.
  • Pointy domes: The roofs of these temples have pointy domes and wherever there is a dome, the pillars are omitted as if to create an octagonal space within the temple.
  • Charmukh design: The only variation in architecture specific to Jain temples is the frequently seen four-faced or chaumukh design.
    • In these four faced temples, the image of a Tirthankar faces all four sides or images of four Tirthankar are placed back to back to face four cardinal directions.
    • Entry into these temples is also from four doors that face the cardinal directions.
  • Sthambas: Another element of Jain architecture are towers of Sthambas which were meant to commemorate victories in war.

Important Examples

  • The great Jain temples and sculptured monuments of Karnataka, Maharashtra and Rajasthan are world-renowned.
  •  The most spectacular of all Jain temples are found at Ranakpur and Mount Abu in Rajasthan.
  • Deogarh (Lalitpur, Uttar Pradesh), Ellora, Badami and Aihole also have some of the important specimens of Jain Art.
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