Green Propulsion for India's Human Space Mission ‘Gaganyaan’

  • Category
    Science & Technology
  • Published
    6th Apr, 2021


India's human space mission Gaganyaan is likely to use a green propellant to avoid all toxic and hazardous materials as a propellant.


  • What is Green Propulsion?
  • Green Propulsionis a green alternative for the conventional chemical propulsion systems for future spacecraft.
  • This is called a "green" fuel because when combusted it transforms into nontoxic gasses.
  • Example: Hydroxylammonium nitrate (NH3OHNO3)fuel/oxidizer blend which is also known as AF-M315E is one example of green propellant


  • Efficient:The green propulsion system seeks to improve overall propellant efficiency.
  • Better performance: It delivers a higher specific thrustdelivered to per given quantity of fuel. It strives to optimize the performance of the hardware, systems, and power solutions.
  • Easy & Safe: This is easier and saferfor storage and handling.
  • Less toxic:It will reduce the handling concerns which are associated with the toxic fuel hydrazine.
  • Lower cost: It requires a potentially shorter launch processing period and results in lowering costs.


  • This is an Indian crewed orbital spacecraft for the formative spacecraft of the Indian Human Spaceflight Programme under ISRO.
    • The spacecraft is designed to carry three people.
    • The mission will have two unmanned flights and one human spaceflight.
  • It will encircle Earth in a low-earth-orbit with an altitude of 300-400 km from earth.
  • GSLV Mk III (LVM-3 (Launch Vehicle Mark-3)) the three-stage heavy-lift launch vehicle, will be used for the launch of Gaganyaan.

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