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India to become Atmanirbhar in Diammonium Phosphate (DAP)

  • Category
    Polity & Governance
  • Published
    12th Aug, 2022

Context

As part of the AtmaNirbhar Bharat initiative to promote self-sufficiency in Fertilisers, Government of India has been advising and supporting the Indian fertiliser companies to strengthen their backend supply chain.

About

Diammonium phosphate (DAP):

  • Diammonium phosphate (DAP) is the world’s most widely used phosphorus fertilizer.
  • It is a preferred fertilizer in India because it contains both Nitrogen and Phosphorus which are primary macro-nutrients and part of 18 essential plant nutrients.
  • Fertilizer grade DAP Contains 18% Nitrogen and 46% Phosphorus (P2O5).
  • DAP is manufactured by reacting Ammonia with Phosphoric acid under controlled conditions in fertilizer plants.

Properties:

  • It is a very popular fertilizer because of its excellent physical properties and nutrient content.
  • It is free flowing, dust-free and does not normally give any storage problem.
  • DAP is almost water-soluble and ultimately leaves acid effect on soils because of ammonia (NH4) it contains.
  • DAP on incorporation into soil, reacts with water and gets converted into HPO4 and NH4.
    • Ammonium (NH4) follows the same routes as in case of urea.
    • Phosphorus in DAP is present in best available from (HPO4).
  • Depending upon the soil reaction (pH), phosphorus exists in 3 forms which can be absorbed by plant roots.
  • These are HPO4, H2PO4 and PO4. Phosphorus, which is immobile in soil, is not subjected to leaching losses.

Non-Agricultural Use:

  • DAP also acts as a fire retardant.
    • For example, a mixture of DAP and other ingredients can be spread in advance of a fire to prevent a forest from burning. It then becomes a nutrient source after the danger of fire has passed.
  • DAP is used in various industrial processes, too, such as metal finishing.
  • It is commonly added to wine to sustain yeast fermentation and to milk to produce cheese cultures.
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