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Non-communicable diseases

  • Category
    Science & Technology
  • Published
    11th Apr, 2019

The Vice President of India addressing the Annual Meeting of the National Interventional Council (NIC) of the Cardiological Society of India described the rise in non-communicable diseases as a “deeply disturbing trend” and called upon the medical fraternity to educate the people on the dangers of leading sedentary lifestyles.

Context

  • The Vice President of India addressing the Annual Meeting of the National Interventional Council (NIC) of the Cardiological Society of India described the rise in non-communicable diseases as a “deeply disturbing trend” and called upon the medical fraternity to educate the people on the dangers of leading sedentary lifestyles.
  • Disease burden from non-communicable diseases increased from 30 per cent to 55 per cent between 1990 and 2016, while the communicable diseases dropped from 61 per cent to 33 per cent in the same period.

About

Differences between NCD and CD:

   Non communicable diseases (NCD)

  • They are primarily cardiovascular diseases, cancers, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes.
  • Causes: High levels of stress, increased incidences of diabetes, blood pressure, smoking, excessive consumption of alcohol, lack of exercise, lack of proper sleep.
  • These diseases are majorly prevalent in rich countries like US and European countries due to widespread sedentary lifestyle.

Communicable diseases(CD)

  • They include HIV, hepatitis A, B and C, measles, salmonella, malaria, Ebola, Pertussis, West Nile Virus, Zika.
  • Causes: Microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi that spread, directly or indirectly, from one person to another, bites from insects, ingesting contaminated food or water.
  • These diseases are majorly prevalent in poor countries like African, Latin American and Asian countries due to lack of hygiene and sanitation.

Global efforts for its prevention:

  • To strengthen national efforts to address the burden of NCDs, the 66th World Health Assembly endorsed the WHO Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of NCDs 2013-2020.
  • Objectives of the plan:
    1. To raise the priority accorded to the prevention and control of NCDs in global, regional and national agendas and internationally agreed development goals, through strengthened international cooperation and advocacy.
    2. To strengthen national capacity, leadership, governance, multisectoral action and partnerships to accelerate country response for the prevention and control of NCDs.
    3. To reduce modifiable risk factors for NCDs and underlying social determinants through creation of health-promoting environments.
    4. To strengthen and orient health systems to address the prevention and control of NCDs and the underlying social determinants through people-centred primary health care and universal health coverage.
    5. To promote and support national capacity for high-quality research and development for the prevention and control of NCDs.
    6. To monitor the trends and determinants of NCDs and evaluate progress in their prevention and control.

India’s efforts:

  1. India has adopted National Action Plan and Monitoring Framework for Prevention and Control of NCDs in line with WHO’s Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of NCDs.
  2. The global action plan lists 9 targets for countries to set. But India has taken the unprecedented step of setting a tenth target to address household air pollution.
  3. India has implemented WHO’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control aimed at reducing the demand for tobacco products.
  4. National Program for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular diseases and Stroke( NPCDCS)
  5. Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA)-female health volunteer of the village. She educates women, men and adolescents regarding the determinants of NCD’s and various associated risk factors like unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, intake of Tobacco and Alcohol and Stress and essentiality of Iodine.
  6. Mental Health Act,1987
  7. Tobacco Control Act ,2003

    Cardiological Society of India (CSI): It is the oldest and the most prestigious organization of cardiologists in the country. It was founded in 1948.

    National Interventional Council: It is the interventional arm of CSI established to provide forum for practitioners of this sub-specialty.

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