Nord Stream Pipeline
8th Feb, 2022
Amid tensions between Russia and Ukraine, pressure is mounting on Germany to stop the Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline project.
The original project
- The original Nord Stream pipeline, with an annual capacity of 55 billion cubic metres (bcm), was finished in late 2012.
- The pipeline system’s total capacity is set to double to 110 bcm following Nord Stream 2’s completion.
- Current status of project-: The pipeline falls in German and Danish Territory, and all but 150 km pipes for the project have already been laid.
Facts about Russia Energy Reserve-:
- Russia has the largest known natural gas reserves of any state on earth.
- This is the 32% of world proven natural gas reserves mainly owned and operated by Russian monopoly Gazprom, which produces 94% of Russia’s natural gas Production.
What is Nord Stream 2 Pipeline Project?
- Nord Stream 2 is an underwater twin pipeline that would transport natural gas from Russia directly to Germany.
- At a length of 1,230 kilometres, it is to follow the route of the existing Nord Stream twin pipeline underneath the Baltic Sea.
- It will carry 55 billion cubic meter of gas per year.
- The pipeline crosses into the exclusive economic zones of five countries: Russia, Germany, Denmark, Finland, and Sweden.
- It would transport natural gas from Russia directly to Germany.
- Nord Stream 2 is being built by Nord Stream 2 AG, a consortium incorporated in Switzerland.
- Moscow-based, state-owned Gazprom is the project’s sole shareholder.
Natural gas is a lower-carbon fuel that can replace other fossil fuels in the energy mix and deliver a reliable output to complement intermittent renewable energy.
Largest natural gas fields in Russia
- Urengoy field – 10.9Tcm: Located in the northern West Siberia Basin, the Urengoyskoye gas and condensate field has been in production since 1978.
- Yamburg field – 8.2Tcm: Yamburg, which is operated by Gazprom and located in Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug in Tyumen Oblast, is also the world’s third biggest natural gas field.
- Bovanenkovo field – 4.9Tcm: Located in the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, the onshore Bovanenkovo field operated by Gazprom has been in production since 2012.
- Shtokmn field – 3.9Tcm: Discovered in 1988, the Shtokman gas and condensate field is located in the central part of the Russian sector of the Barents Sea, approximately 600km north-east of Murmansk and in water depths of ranging from 320m to 340m.
- Zapolyarnoye field – 3.5Tcm: The Zapolyarnoye field is located in the southern part of the Taz District, 220km away from Novy Urengoy, Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Area.
- Environmentalists argue that it will create further dependence of Germany on fossil fuels, which will impact its fight against climate change.
- The US says that the pipeline will make Europe further dependent on Russia for energy security. Russia could use it as a geopolitical weapon.
- Countries like Ukraine, Poland and Belarus are also opposing it as they will lose billions as transit fees due to bypassing.
- The US has threatened to impose sanctions on Nord Stream if Russia invades Ukraine. Germany has also said that it may be forced to impose sanctions.