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30th December 2022 (6 Topics)

Short Articles

Art & Culture

Sammakka Saralamma Janjati Pujari Sammelan

The President attended the Sammakka Saralamma Janjati Pujari Sammelan, organised by the Vanvasi Kalyan Parishad, Telangana.


  • ?Sammakka Saralamma Jatara also known as Medaram Jatara is a biennial tribal festival celebrated in the memory and honour of goddesses Sammakka and Saralamma in the State of Telangana, India.
  • The Jatara begins at Medaram in Tadvai Mandal in Mulugu District.
  • It commemorates the valiant fight of the mother and daughter duo i.e. Sammakka and Saralamma against the then Kakatiya dynasty rulers protesting exaction of land tribute even at the time of severe drought.
  • After Kumbha Mela, the Medaram jatara is said to attract the largest number of devotees in the country.

Polity & Governance

Corporate Governance

The story of Chanda Kochhar illustrates the importance of strong corporate governance in preventing greed and ensuring ethical business practices.

What is Corporate Governance?

  • Corporate governance, which refers to the system of rules, practices, and processes by which a company is directed and controlled.
  • Framework for corporate governance
  •  The organizational framework for corporate governance initiatives in India consists of the Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA) and the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI).
  • SEBI monitors and regulates corporate governance of listed companies in India.

Important Acts having bearing on the corporate governance principles.

  • The Companies Act, 2013
  • The Competition Act 2002
  • The Foreign Exchange Management Act,1999
  • The Industries (Development and Regulation) Act, 1951


Vande Metro train

India will be getting its first-ever domestically constructed hydrogen-powered train by December 2023. 


  • The hydrogen-powered train in India will be known as the “Vande Metro”
  • Germany was the first country to introduce hydrogen-powered trains
  • These trains emit no pollution and produce little noise, emitting just steam and evaporated water.


Emperor penguins, reindeer among threatened species: WWF

Emperor penguins and reindeer were among the species highlighted in a World Wildlife Fund (WWF) report as severely threatened by the cascading impacts of climate change.

Emperor penguins

  • Scientific name: Aptenodytes forsteri
  • Emperor penguins spend their entire lives on Antarctic ice and in its waters. They survive—breeding, raising young, and eating—by relying on a number of clever adaptations.

Reindeer (Caribou)

Scientific name: Rangifer tarandus

  • They are built for staying warm in freezing temperatures. 
  • They originally inhabited the tundra and forests of Scandinavia and northern Russia, and were then introduced into Iceland, Greenland, Alaska, and Canada.
  • They are covered in hair from their nose to the bottom of their feet.

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