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1st May 2023 (6 Topics)

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Geography (GS-I)

World’s second deepest blue hole discovered in Mexico

As per the latest development, scientists have uncovered a massive sinkhole off the coast of the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico. 


  • The giant blue hole which is around 900 ft deep, has been dubbed as the second deepest blue hole found on the planet.
    • The world’s deepest known deep hole was discovered in the South China Sea in 2016, and is known as the Dragon Hole. As per the records, it’s more than 980 ft deep.
  • The Mexico blue hole has been named Taam Ja’, which means ‘deep water’ in Mayan. 
  • Reportedly, these blue holes get their names from their indigo centres and light blue perimeters, and they follow the rules of the ocean subject to tide.

A blue hole is actually a massive underwater sinkhole, which is hundreds of metres long and spans across areas that are bigger than cities and stands at a height of several skyscrapers.

Geography (GS-I)

Rare Sun Halo 

  • A sun halo is an optical phenomenon that occurs when sunlight interacts with ice crystals in the atmosphere. 
  • It appears as a bright ring or halo around the sun, typically with a radius of approximately 22 degrees. The ring is formed by unique hexagonal ice crystals present in the atmosphere.
  • These icy crystals are found in cirrus clouds, which are thin and wispy clouds. When sunlight enters these ice crystals, it is refracted, or bent, by the crystal's surfaces. 
  • This bending of light causes the sun's rays to separate into their component colors, creating a spectrum of colors that are visible as the halo.

Polity & Governance (GS-II)

Cryptocurrency and Regulation of Official Digital Currency Bill, 2021

In the current Lok Sabha session, the Ministry of Finance was questioned about the Cryptocurrency Bill (that was scheduled in 2021).


  • A cryptocurrency is a form of virtual asset based on a network that is scattered across a huge number of computers. 
  • It is a decentralized form that allows cryptocurrency to exist outside the control of the central government or authorities

The Cryptocurrency and Regulation of Official Digital Currency Bill, 2021 was introduced in the Lok Sabha. The bill seeks to create a favorable framework for the creation of digital currency that will be issued by the Reserve Bank Of India (RBI). 

International Relations (GS-II)

United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO) 

The United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO) promotes industrial safety and safe working conditions and, as a contribution to World Day for Safety and Health at Work 2023, has launched a new training course, Occupational Safety and Health Aspects of Leather Manufacturing.

  • UNIDO is a specialized agency of the United Nations with a unique mandate to promote, dynamize and accelerate industrial development.  
  • It’s mandate is reflected in Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 9: “Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation”, but UNIDO’s activities contribute to all the SDGs. 
  • India is one of UNIDO's Founding Members.

April 28 is also the International Commemoration Day for Dead and Injured Workers, organised worldwide by the trade union movement since 1996 to honour the memory of victims of occupational accidents and diseases.


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