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  • Published
    22nd Feb, 2023

Science and Technology (GS-III)

Brain-inspired image sensor







Researchers at the Indian Institute of Science (IISc) in a new study have shown how a brain-inspired image sensor can go beyond the diffraction limit of light to detect miniscule objects.

About the study:

  • Miniscule objects include cellular components or nanoparticles invisible to current microscopes.
  • This novel technique, which combines optical microscopy with a neuromorphic camera and machine learning algorithms, presents a major step forward in pinpointing objects smaller than 50 nanometres in size.
  • The neuromorphic camera used in the study mimics the way the human retina converts light into electrical impulses, and has several advantages over conventional cameras.
  • The neuromorphic cameras have a very high dynamic range (>120 dB), which means that you can go from a very low-light environment to very high-light conditions.

Polity and Governance (GS-II)

AI for live transcript of court hearings

In a first, the Supreme Court launched the use of Artificial Intelligence and technology powered by Natural Language Processing on a trial basis to provide live transcriptions of court hearings.


  • A screen displaying the live transcription of court proceedings, which faces the lawyers, has been placed in courtroom number.
  • The SC also intends to publish transcripts of oral arguments on its website.
  • This service is being provided by TERES, which has been providing similar services during arbitration proceedings.
  • More recently, it had also provided transcription services during the Delhi Arbitration Weekend held from 17 to 19 February.

Economy (GS-III)

Enemy properties





The Government of India has earned over Rs.3, 400 crore from disposal of enemy properties from 2018 to 2022, according to a report.

What are enemy properties?

  • Enemy properties are classified as those properties which are left behind by people who took citizenship of Pakistan and China after leaving India during the partition and post the 1962 and 1965 wars.
  • The Custodian of Enemy Property for India (CEPI) has realised a total of Rs 3,407.98 crore from disposal of enemy properties which include 7,52,83,287 shares (for Rs.2,708.9 crore) of 152 companies in 2018-19, 2019-20, 2020-21 and 2021-22, and Rs.699.08 crore as revenue receipts.
  • Meanwhile, an Enemy Property Information System has been developed for effective preservation, management and speedy disposal of enemy properties.
  • It is available to all stakeholders dealing with the subject matter.
  • To ascertain the present status of immovable enemy properties, a latest survey and valuation report have been asked from all states and Union territories concerned.

Note:The highest number of enemy properties were found in Uttar Pradesh (6,255) followed by West Bengal (4,088), Delhi (659), Goa (295), Maharashtra (208), Telangana (158), Gujarat (151), Tripura (105), Bihar (94), Madhya Pradesh (94), Chhattisgarh (78) and Haryana (71 properties).

Polity and Governance (GS-II)

First synchronised vulture survey




The Kerala Forest and Wildlife department, along with its counterparts in Tamil Nadu and Karnataka, is preparing to organise the first synchronised vulture survey in select regions of the Western Ghats on February 24, 25 and 26.


  • Every year the Forest departments in the three States organise separate surveys at different times to count the remaining vulture population in South India.
  • The survey would simultaneously be organised in the three forest divisions, including the Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary and the South and North forest divisions.
  • Each of the locations will be monitored by a five-member team, comprising a vulture expert; a forest beat officer, one or two volunteers and a forest watcher.

Declining Vulture population:

  • Vultures faced a catastrophic population decline during the 2000s when the species was exposed to the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac used as a painkiller for cattle.
  • South Asia had about four crore White-rumped vultures until the end of the 1990s.
  • But the population has come down to fewer than 10,000.


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